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Sökning: WFRF:(Bouaziz Amar E)

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1.
  • Mouton-Liger, F., et al. (författare)
  • CSF levels of the BACE1 substrate NRG1 correlate with cognition in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The presynaptic protein neuregulin1 (NRG1) is cleaved by beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in a similar way as amyloid precursor protein (APP) NRG1 can activate post-synaptic receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB4 (ErbB4) and was linked to schizophrenia. The NRG1/ErbB4 complex is neuroprotective, can trigger synaptogenesis and plasticity, increases the expression of NMDA and GABA receptors, and can induce neuroinflammation. This complex can reduce memory formation. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, NRG1 accumulates in neuritic plaques. It is difficult to determine if NRG1 has beneficial and/or detrimental effects in AD. BACE1 levels are increased in AD brains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and may lead to enhanced NRG1 secretion, but no study has assessed CSF NRG1 levels in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Methods: This retrospective study included 162 patients suffering from AD dementia (54), MCI with progression to AD dementia (MCI-AD) (27), non-AD MCI (30), non-AD dementias (30), and neurological controls (27). All patients had neurological examinations, brain MRI, and neuropsychological evaluations. After written informed consent and using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), CSF samples were evaluated for A beta 1-42, A beta 1-40, total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau on threonine 181 (P-tau), BACE1, growth-associated protein 43 (GAP 43), neurogranin (Ng), and NRG1. Results: Levels of NRG1 were significantly increased in the CSF of AD (+ 36%) and MCI-AD (+ 28%) patients compared to neurological controls and also non-AD MCI and non-AD dementias. In addition, in AD and MCI-AD patients, NRG1 levels positively correlated with A beta 1-42 but not with T-tau, P-tau, and BACE1 levels and negatively correlated with MMSE scores. A longitudinal follow-up study of AD patients revealed a trend (p = 0.08) between CSF NRG1 levels and cognitive decline. In the overall population, NRG1 correlated with MMSE and the synaptic biomarkers GAP 43 and neurogranin. Conclusions: Our results showed that CSF NRG1 levels are increased in AD and MCI-AD as compared to controls and other dementias. CSF NRG1 levels are associated with cognitive evolution, and a major outcome of our findings is that synaptic NRG1 could be involved in the pathophysiology of AD. Modulating brain NRG1 activity may represent a new therapeutic target in AD.
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2.
  • Öhrfelt, Annika, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • The pre-synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin is a novel biomarker for Alzheimer's disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers Research & Therapy. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1758-9193. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Synaptic degeneration is a central pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease that occurs early during the course of disease and correlates with cognitive symptoms. The pre-synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin-1 appears to be essential for the maintenance of an intact synaptic transmission and cognitive function. Synaptotagmin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid is a candidate Alzheimer biomarker for synaptic dysfunction that also may correlate with cognitive decline. Methods: In this study, a novel mass spectrometry-based assay for measurement of cerebrospinal fluid synaptotagmin-1 was developed, and was evaluated in two independent sample sets of patients and controls. Sample set I included cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (N = 17, age 52-86 years), patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (N = 5, age 62-88 years), and controls (N = 17, age 41-82 years). Sample set II included cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (N = 24, age 52-84 years), patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (N = 18, age 58-83 years), and controls (N = 36, age 43-80 years). Results: The reproducibility of the novel method showed coefficients of variation of the measured synaptotagmin-1 peptide 215-223 (VPYSELGGK) and peptide 238-245 (HDIIGEFK) of 14 % or below. In both investigated sample sets, the CSF levels of synaptotagmin-1 were significantly increased in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (P <= 0.0001) and in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (P < 0.001). In addition, in sample set I the synaptotagmin-1 level was significantly higher in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease compared with patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (P <= 0.05). Conclusions: Cerebrospinal fluid synaptotagmin-1 is a promising biomarker to monitor synaptic dysfunction and degeneration in Alzheimer's disease that may be useful for clinical diagnosis, to monitor effect on synaptic integrity by novel drug candidates, and to explore pathophysiology directly in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
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3.
  • Saddiki, H., et al. (författare)
  • Age and the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: A cerebrospinal fluid biomarker-based case-control study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Plos Medicine. - 1549-1277. ; 17:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene and increasing age are two of the most important known risk factors for developing Alzheimer disease (AD). The diagnosis of AD based on clinical symptoms alone is known to have poor specificity; recently developed diagnostic criteria based on biomarkers that reflect underlying AD neuropathology allow better assessment of the strength of the associations of risk factors with AD. Accordingly, we examined the global and age-specific association betweenAPOEgenotype and AD by using the A/T/N classification, relying on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of beta-amyloid peptide (A, beta-amyloid deposition), phosphorylated tau (T, pathologic tau), and total tau (N, neurodegeneration) to identify patients with AD. Methods and findings This case-control study included 1,593 white AD cases (55.4% women; mean age 72.8 [range = 44-96] years) with abnormal values of CSF biomarkers from nine European memory clinics and the American Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. A total of 11,723 dementia-free controls (47.1% women; mean age 65.6 [range = 44-94] years) were drawn from two longitudinal cohort studies (Whitehall II and Three-City), in which incident cases of dementia over the follow-up were excluded from the control population. Odds ratio (OR) and population attributable fraction (PAF) for AD associated withAPOEgenotypes were determined, overall and by 5-year age categories. In total, 63.4% of patients with AD and 22.6% of population controls carried at least oneAPOE epsilon 4 allele. Compared with non-epsilon 4 carriers, heterozygous epsilon 4 carriers had a 4.6 (95% confidence interval 4.1-5.2;p< 0.001) and epsilon 4/epsilon 4 homozygotes a 25.4 (20.4-31.2;p< 0.001) higher OR of AD in unadjusted analysis. This association was modified by age (pfor interaction < 0.001). The PAF associated with carrying at least one epsilon 4 allele was greatest in the 65-70 age group (69.7%) and weaker before 55 years (14.2%) and after 85 years (22.6%). The protective effect ofAPOE epsilon 2 allele for AD was unaffected by age. Main study limitations are that analyses were based on white individuals and AD cases were drawn from memory centers, which may not be representative of the general population of patients with AD. Conclusions In this study, we found that AD diagnosis based on biomarkers was associated with APOE epsilon 4 carrier status, with a higher OR than previously reported from studies based on only clinical AD criteria. This association differs according to age, with the strongest effect at 65-70 years. These findings highlight the need for early interventions for dementia prevention to mitigate the effect ofAPOE epsilon 4 at the population level. Author summaryWhy was this study done? The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E () gene () and increasing age are two of the most important known risk factors for developing Alzheimer disease (AD). The recent development of diagnostic criteria based on biomarkers that reflect brain beta-amyloid and tau lesions (beta-amyloid deposition, pathologic tau, neurodegeneration [A/T/N] classification]) increases homogeneity in diagnosed cases. The strength of association of AD with risk factors can be better determined using biomarker-based AD compared with AD diagnosis based only on clinical criteria because the latter are known to lack specificity as a result of difficulties in ruling out other causes of dementia. What did the researchers do and find? We compared the overall and age-specific association between and AD using a case-control study that included 1,593 AD cases from memory clinics with positive cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and 11,723 dementia-free controls drawn from two longitudinal cohort studies. The use of a large number of cases and controls allows assessment of whether the association between and AD is dependent on age. Compared with controls, patients with AD were more likely to carry one (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6) or two (OR = 25.3). This association was significantly modified by age, with the strongest association seen between 65 and 70 years of age and weaker associations at the two tails of the age distribution. What do these findings mean? Incorporating biomarkers for diagnosis of AD identified an association with that is apparently greater than has been previously reported using clinical diagnosis of the disease. The impact of on the risk of AD was strongest between the 65 and 70 years of age, earlier than the mean age at diagnosis in this study, which was 72.8 years.
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6.
  • Öhrfelt, Annika, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Full-length and C-terminal neurogranin in Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid analyzed by novel ultrasensitive immunoassays
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Neurogranin (Ng) is a neuron-specific and postsynaptic protein that is abundantly expressed in the brain, particularly in the dendritic spine of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The enzymatic cleavage of Ng produces fragments that are released into cerebrospinal (CSF), which have been shown to be elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and predict cognitive decline. Thus, quantification of distinctive cleavage products of Ng could elucidate different features of the disease. Methods In this study, we developed novel ultrasensitive single molecule array (Simoa) assays for measurement of full-length neurogranin (FL-Ng) and C-terminal neurogranin (CT-Ng) fragments in CSF. The Ng Simoa assays were evaluated in CSF samples from AD patients (N = 23), mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD) (N = 18), and from neurological controls (N = 26). Results The intra-assay repeatability and inter-assay precision of the novel methods had coefficients of variation below 7% and 14%, respectively. CSF FL-Ng and CSF CT-Ng median concentrations were increased in AD patients (6.02 ng/L, P < 0.00001 and 452 ng/L, P = 0.00001, respectively) and in patients with MCI-AD (5.69 ng/L, P < 0.00001 and 566 ng/L, P < 0.00001) compared to neurological controls (0.644 ng/L and 145 ng/L). The median CSF ratio of CT-Ng/FL-Ng were decreased in AD patients (ratio = 101, P = 0.008) and in patients with MCI-AD (ratio = 115, P = 0.016) compared to neurological controls (ratio = 180). CSF of FL-Ng, CT-Ng, and ratio of CT-Ng/FL-Ng could each significantly differentiate AD patients from controls (FL-Ng, AUC = 0.907; CT-Ng, AUC = 0.913; CT-Ng/FL-Ng, AUC = 0.775) and patients with MCI-AD from controls (FL-Ng, AUC = 0.937; CT-Ng, AUC = 0.963; CT-Ng/FL-Ng, AUC = 0.785). Conclusions Assessments of the FL-Ng and CT-Ng levels in CSF with the novel sensitive immunoassays provide a high separation of AD from controls, even in early phase of the disease. The novel Ng assays are robust and highly sensitive and may be valuable tools to study synaptic alteration in AD, as well as to monitor the effect on synaptic integrity of novel drug candidates in clinical trials.
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