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Sökning: WFRF:(Boyd Heather A.)

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1.
  • Wood, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:11, s. 1173-1186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
2.
  • Winkler, Thomas W., et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to similar to 2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men <= 50y, men > 50y, women <= 50y, women > 50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR< 5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (< 50y) than in older adults (>= 50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may providefurther insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
3.
  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 518:7538, s. 197-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
4.
  • Perry, John R. B., et al. (författare)
  • Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 514:7520, s. 92-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-causemortality(1). Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation(2,3), but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.
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5.
  • Paternoster, Lavinia, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies three new risk loci for atopic dermatitis.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a commonly occurring chronic skin disease with high heritability. Apart from filaggrin (FLG), the genes influencing atopic dermatitis are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 5,606 affected individuals and 20,565 controls from 16 population-based cohorts and then examined the ten most strongly associated new susceptibility loci in an additional 5,419 affected individuals and 19,833 controls from 14 studies. Three SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the discovery and replication cohorts combined, including rs479844 upstream of OVOL1 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, P = 1.1 × 10(-13)) and rs2164983 near ACTL9 (OR = 1.16, P = 7.1 × 10(-9)), both of which are near genes that have been implicated in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as rs2897442 in KIF3A within the cytokine cluster at 5q31.1 (OR = 1.11, P = 3.8 × 10(-8)). We also replicated association with the FLG locus and with two recently identified association signals at 11q13.5 (rs7927894; P = 0.008) and 20q13.33 (rs6010620; P = 0.002). Our results underline the importance of both epidermal barrier function and immune dysregulation in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.
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6.
  • Elks, Cathy E, et al. (författare)
  • Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 42:12, s. 1077-U73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P = 5.4 × 10⁻⁶⁰) and 9q31.2 (P = 2.2 × 10⁻³³), we identified 30 new menarche loci (all P &lt; 5 × 10⁻⁸) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P &lt; 1.9 × 10⁻⁶). The new loci included four previously associated with body mass index (in or near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in or near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1 and MCHR2) and three in or near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and gene-set enrichment pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing.
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7.
  • Liu, Xueping, et al. (författare)
  • Variants in the fetal genome near pro-inflammatory cytokine genes on 2q13 associate with gestational duration.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P = 3.96 × 10−14). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. © 2019, The Author(s).
8.
  • Fadista, João, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies BARX1 and EML4-MTA3 as new loci associated with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 28:2, s. 332-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a disorder of young infants with a population incidence of ∼2/1000 live births, caused by hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter smooth muscle. Reported genetic loci associated with IHPS explain only a minor proportion of IHPS risk. To identify new risk loci, we carried out a genome-wide meta-analysis on 1395 surgery-confirmed cases and 4438 controls, with replication in a set of 2427 cases and 2524 controls. We identified and replicated six independent genomic loci associated with IHPS risk at genome wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), including novel associations with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of these SNPs, rs6736913 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.32; P = 3.0 × 10-15], is a low frequency missense variant in EML4 at 2p21. The second SNP, rs1933683 (OR = 1.34; P = 3.1 × 10-9) is 1 kb downstream of BARX1 at 9q22.32, an essential gene for stomach formation in embryogenesis. Using the genome-wide complex trait analysis method, we estimated the IHPS SNP heritability to be 30%, and using the linkage disequilibrium score regression method, we found support for a previously reported genetic correlation of IHPS with lipid metabolism. By combining the largest collection of IHPS cases to date (3822 cases), with results generalized across populations of different ancestry, we elucidate novel mechanistic avenues of IHPS disease architecture.
9.
  • Akre, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal and gestational risk factors for hypospadias
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 116:8, s. 1071-1076
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. RESULTS: A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) 4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) &gt; ;= 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6, 95% CI, 1.2-5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20-24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy's risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1-3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2-2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6, 95% CI, 1.1-53). CONCLUSIONS: A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias.
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10.
  • Ståhl, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Birth Abnormalities in the Offspring of Men With a History of Cancer: A Cohort Study Using Danish and Swedish National Registries.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105. ; 103, s. 398-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The potential mutagenic effects of cancer therapies and the growing number of young male cancer survivors have given rise to concern about the health of their offspring. Methods We identified all singleton children born alive in Denmark between 1994 and 2004 and in Sweden between 1994 and 2005 (n = 1 777 765). Of the 8670 children with a paternal history of cancer, 8162 were conceived naturally and 508 were conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection). Of the 1 769 0795 children without a paternal history of cancer, 25 926 were conceived using ARTs. Associations between paternal history of cancer and risk of adverse birth outcomes of children conceived naturally or by ARTs were investigated using log-linear binomial models, yielding risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The offspring of male cancer survivors were more likely to have major congenital abnormalities than the offspring of fathers with no history of cancer (RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.31, P = .0043, 3.7% vs 3.2%). However, the mode of conception (natural conception or ARTs) did not modify the association between paternal history of cancer and risk of congenital abnormalities (natural conception, RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.31; ARTs, RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.87, P(interaction) = .84). Conclusion We observed a statistically significant but modest increase in the risk of major congenital abnormalities among offspring of males with a history of cancer, independent of the mode of conception.
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