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Sökning: WFRF:(Bradman Neil)

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  • Akkoc, Nurullah, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Prevalence of M694V in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis : Additional Evidence for a Link With Familial Mediterranean Fever
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 62:10, s. 3059-3063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To assess whether there is a statistically significant difference in the frequency of common MEFV allele variants in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as compared with control patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and with healthy control subjects. Methods. Sixty-two patients with AS, 50 healthy control subjects, and 46 patients with RA were assessed for the presence of MEFV variants. Exon 10 was analyzed by direct sequencing. E148Q was analyzed by restriction endonuclease enzyme digestion (REED) or by direct sequencing when REED analysis failed. Results. The allele frequency of all MEFV variants in the AS group was significantly higher than that in the pooled control group of healthy subjects plus RA patients (15.3% versus 6.8%; P = 0.021). M694V was the only variant that was significantly more common in the AS group than in the combined or individual control groups (P = 0.026 for AS patients versus healthy controls, P = 0.046 for AS patients versus RA patient controls, and P = 0.008 for AS patients versus healthy and RA patient control groups). The carriage rate of M694V was also significantly higher in the AS patient group than in the combined control group (odds ratio 7.0, P = 0.014). Neither M694V nor any other MEFV variant showed a correlation with most of the disease-related measures examined. Conclusion. We found an increased frequency of MEFV variants in AS patients as compared with healthy controls and with RA patient controls. This was primarily due to the presence of M694V. The roles of other exon 10 variants, as well as the relationship between the variant status and the severity and clinical course of the disease, need to be explored in further studies that include sufficiently large sample sizes.
  • Bains, Ripudaman K., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular diversity and population structure at the Cytochrome P450 3A5 gene in Africa
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Genetics. - 1471-2156 .- 1471-2156. ; 14, s. 34-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of many therapeutic drugs. CYP3A5 expression levels vary between individuals and populations, and this contributes to adverse clinical outcomes. Variable expression is largely attributed to four alleles, CYP3A5*1 (expresser allele); CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343) (low/non-expresser alleles). Little is known about CYP3A5 variability in Africa, a region with considerable genetic diversity. Here we used a multi-disciplinary approach to characterize CYP3A5 variation in geographically and ethnically diverse populations from in and around Africa, and infer the evolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of diversity in this gene. We genotyped 2538 individuals from 36 diverse populations in and around Africa for common low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles, and re-sequenced the CYP3A5 gene in five Ethiopian ethnic groups. We estimated the ages of low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles using a linked microsatellite and assuming a step-wise mutation model of evolution. Finally, we examined a hypothesis that CYP3A5 is important in salt retention adaptation by performing correlations with ecological data relating to aridity for the present day, 10,000 and 50,000 years ago. Results: We estimate that similar to 43% of individuals within our African dataset express CYP3A5, which is lower than previous independent estimates for the region. We found significant intra-African variability in CYP3A5 expression phenotypes. Within Africa the highest frequencies of high-activity alleles were observed in equatorial and Niger-Congo speaking populations. Ethiopian allele frequencies were intermediate between those of other sub-Saharan African and non-African groups. Re-sequencing of CYP3A5 identified few additional variants likely to affect CYP3A5 expression. We estimate the ages of CYP3A5*3 as similar to 76,400 years and CYP3A5*6 as similar to 218,400 years. Finally we report that global CYP3A5 expression levels correlated significantly with aridity measures for 10,000 [Spearmann's Rho= -0.465, p=0.004] and 50,000 years ago [Spearmann's Rho= -0.379, p=0.02]. Conclusions: Significant intra-African diversity at the CYP3A5 gene is likely to contribute to multiple pharmacogenetic profiles across the continent. Significant correlations between CYP3A5 expression phenotypes and aridity data are consistent with a hypothesis that the enzyme is important in salt-retention adaptation.
  • Browning, Sarah L., et al. (författare)
  • CYP1A2 is more variable than previously thought : a genomic biography of the gene behind the human drug-metabolizing enzyme
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenetics and genomics. - 1744-6872. ; 20:11, s. 647-664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objectives CYP1A2 metabolizes various drugs, endogenous compounds and procarcinogens. As human genetic diversity has been reported to decrease with distance from Ethiopia, we resequenced CYP1A2 in five Ethiopian ethnic groups representing a rough northeast to southwest transect across Ethiopia to establish: (i) what variation exists in comparison with what is already known globally and (ii) what CYP1A2 pharmacogenetic profiles may be present as several CYP1A2-metabolized drugs are administered to Ethiopians. Results and conclusions We found 49 different variable sites (30 of which are novel), nine nonsynonymous changes (seven of which are novel), one synonymous change and 55 different haplotypes, only three of which are previously reported. When haplotypes were constructed using only nonsynonymous polymorphisms to restrict haplotypes to those most likely to affect enzyme structure/function, 10 haplotypes were identified (seven contain previously unidentified nonsynonymous variants and four are predicted to alter the enzyme structure/function). Most individuals have at least one copy of the ancestral haplotype. Comparing these data with those from publically available databases, Ethiopian groups display twice the variation seen in all other populations combined (gene diversity using nonsynonymous variants): Ethiopia = 0.17 +/- 0.02, other populations = 0.08 +/- 0.03. Across the entire gene, Ethiopia also evidences all common variation found on a global scale. We provide evidence of weak purifying selection acting on CYP1A2 and show that the time to most recent common ancestor, calculated using variation in a nearby microsatellite, places several variants into a period predating the expansion of modern humans out of Africa less than 100 000 years ago. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 20:647-664 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Horsfall, Laura J., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Clinically Relevant UGT1A Alleles and Haplotypes in African Populations
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of Human Genetics. - 0003-4800 .- 1469-1809. ; 75:2, s. 236-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variation of a short (TA)(n) repeat sequence (rs8175347) covering the TATA box of UGT1A1 (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1) is associated with hyperbilirubinaemia (Gilbert's syndrome) and adverse drug reactions, and is used for dosage advice for irinotecan. Several reports indicate that the low-activity (risk) alleles ((TA)(7) and (TA)(8))) are very frequent in Africans but the patterns of association with other variants in the UGT1A gene complex that may modulate these responses are not well known. rs8175347 and two other clinically relevant UGT1A variants (rs11692021 and rs10929302) were assayed in 2616 people from Europe and Africa. Low-activity (TA)(n) alleles frequencies were highest in equatorial Africa, (TA)(7,) being the most common in Cameroon, Ghana, southern Sudan, and in Ethiopian Anuak. Haplotypic diversity was also greatest in equatorial Africa, but in Ethiopia was very variable across ethnic groups. Resequencing of the promoter of a sample subset revealed no novel variations, but rs34547608 and rs887829 were typed and shown to be tightly associated with (TA)(n). Our results illustrate the need for investigation of the effect of UGT1A variants other than (TA)(n) on the risk of irinotecan toxicity, as well as hyperbilirubinaemia due to hemolytic anaemia or human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors, so that appropriate pharmacogenetic advice can be given.
  • Karmin, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 25:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50-100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192-307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47-52 kya, consistent with a rapid initial colonization model of Eurasia and Oceania after the out-of-Africa bottleneck. In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky. We hypothesize that this bottleneck is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males.
  • Thompson, Simon R., et al. (författare)
  • The frequency of an IL-18-associated haplotype in Africans
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 21:4, s. 465-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variation within the gene for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 has been associated with inter-individual differences in levels of free protein and disease risk. We investigated the frequency of function-associated IL18 gene haplotypes in an extensive sample (n=2357) of African populations from across the continent. A previously identified five tagging SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) haplotype (here designated hGTATA), known to be associated with lower levels of IL-18, was observed at a frequency of 27% in a British population of recent European ancestry, but was found at low frequency (<8%) or completely absent in African populations. Potentially protective variants may, as a consequence, be found at low frequency in African individuals and may confer a difference in disease risk.
  • Veeramah, Krishna R., et al. (författare)
  • Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 10, s. 92-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites) and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1) in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results: The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations). Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions: Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.
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