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Sökning: WFRF:(Brambilla Elisabeth)

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1.
  • Beecham, Ashley H, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 75 VARICK ST, 9TH FLR, NEW YORK, NY 10013-1917 USA. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:11, s. 1353-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)), 3 of which we found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants at 103 discrete loci outside of the major histocompatibility complex. With high-resolution Bayesian fine mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalog of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals.
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2.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:5, s. 501-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
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3.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:5, s. 501-U69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
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4.
  • George, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive genomic profiles of small cell lung cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 524:7563, s. 47-U73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have sequenced the genomes of 110 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), one of the deadliest human cancers. In nearly all the tumours analysed we found bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1, sometimes by complex genomic rearrangements. Two tumours with wild-type RB1 had evidence of chromothripsis leading to overexpression of cyclin D1 (encoded by the CCND1 gene), revealing an alternative mechanism of Rb1 deregulation. Thus, loss of the tumour suppressors TP53 and RB1 is obligatory in SCLC. We discovered somatic genomic rearrangements of TP73 that create an oncogenic version of this gene, TP73Dex2/3. In rare cases, SCLC tumours exhibited kinase gene mutations, providing a possible therapeutic opportunity for individual patients. Finally, we observed inactivating mutations in NOTCH family genes in 25% of human SCLC. Accordingly, activation of Notch signalling in a pre-clinical SCLC mouse model strikingly reduced the number of tumours and extended the survival of the mutant mice. Furthermore, neuroendocrine gene expression was abrogated by Notch activity in SCLC cells. This first comprehensive study of somatic genome alterations in SCLC uncovers several key biological processes and identifies candidate therapeutic targets in this highly lethal form of cancer.
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5.
  • Lantuejoul, Sylvie, et al. (författare)
  • PD-L1 Testing for Lung Cancer in 2019 : Perspective From the IASLC Pathology Committee
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic Oncology. - 1556-0864 .- 1556-1380. ; 15:4, s. 499-519
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recent development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has led to promising advances in the treatment of patients with NSCLC and SCLC with advanced or metastatic disease. Most ICIs target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis with the aim of restoring antitumor immunity. Multiple clinical trials for ICIs have evaluated a predictive value of PD-L1 protein expression in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (ICs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), for which different assays with specific IHC platforms were applied. Of those, some PD-L1 IHC assays have been validated for the prescription of the corresponding agent for first- or second-line treatment. However, not all laboratories are equipped with the dedicated platforms, and many laboratories have set up in-house or laboratory-developed tests that are more affordable than the generally expensive clinical trial-validated assays. Although PD-L1 IHC test is now deployed in most pathology laboratories, its appropriate implementation and interpretation are critical as a predictive biomarker and can be challenging owing to the multiple antibody clones and platforms or assays available and given the typically small size of samples provided. Because many articles have been published since the issue of the IASLC Atlas of PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Testing in Lung Cancer, this review by the IASLC Pathology Committee provides updates on the indications of ICIs for lung cancer in 2019 and discusses important considerations on preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical aspects of PD-L1 IHC testing, including specimen type, validation of assays, external quality assurance, and training.
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6.
  • Lim, Eric, et al. (författare)
  • Proceedings of the IASLC International Workshop on Advances in Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors 2007
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic Oncology. - 1556-0864 .- 1556-1380. ; 3:10, s. 1194-1201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, (IASLC) International Congress on Advances in Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors was a two-day meeting held at the Royal Brompton Hospital in London, United Kingdom on the thirteenth and forteenth of December 2007. The meeting was led by 14 member international faculty-in the disciplines of pathology, surgery, medicine, oncology, endocrinology, nuclear medicine, diagnostic imaging, and biostatistics. The aims were twofold, as an educational meeting, and to develop the IASLC International Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors Registry. The meeting highlighted the difference in presentation of the tumors, management options for early and advanced stage disease including the use of novel agents and approaches. The need, process, and approach to an International Registry of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors were emphasized. International collaboration to develop a retrospective registry, prospective data collection, virtual tissue bank, and collaborative clinical trials were universally agreed as the best way to advance our understanding and treatment of these rare tumors.
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7.
  • Mino-Kenudson, Mari, et al. (författare)
  • The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Global Survey on Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Testing for NSCLC
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic Oncology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1556-0864 .- 1556-1380. ; 16:4, s. 686-696
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is required to determine the eligibility for pembrolizumab monotherapy in advanced NSCLC worldwide and for several other indications depending on the country. Four assays have been approved/Communaute Europeene-In vitro Diagnostic (CV-IVD)-marked, but PD-L1 IHC seems diversely implemented across regions and laboratories with the application of laboratory-developed tests (LDTs).Method: To assess the practice of PD-L1 IHC and identify issues and disparities, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee conducted a global survey for pathologists from January to May 2019, comprising multiple questions on preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical conditions.Result: A total of 344 pathologists from 64 countries participated with 41% from Europe, 24% from North America, and 18% from Asia. Besides biopsies and resections, cellblocks were used by 75% of the participants and smears by 11%. The clone 22C3 was most often used (69%) followed by SP263 (51%). They were applied as an LDT by 40% and 30% of the users, respectively, and 76% of the participants developed at least one LDT. Half of the participants reported a turnaround time of less than or equal to 2 days, whereas 13% reported that of greater than or equal to 5 days. In addition, quality assurance (QA), formal training for scoring, and standardized reporting were not implemented by 18%, 16%, and 14% of the participants, respectively.Conclusions: Heterogeneity in PD-L1 testing is marked across regions and laboratories in terms of antibody clones, IHC assays, samples, turnaround times, and QA measures. The lack of QA, formal training, and standardized reporting stated by a considerable minority identifies a need for additional QA measures and training opportunities.
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8.
  • Moreira, Andre L., et al. (författare)
  • A Grading System for Invasive Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma : A Proposal From the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic Oncology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1556-0864 .- 1556-1380. ; 15:10, s. 1599-1610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: A grading system for pulmonary adenocarcinoma has not been established. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pathology panel evaluated a set of histologic criteria associated with prognosis aimed at establishing a grading system for invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Methods: A multi-institutional study involving multiple cohorts of invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas was conducted. A cohort of 284 stage I pulmonary adenocarcinomas was used as a training set to identify histologic features associated with patient outcomes (recurrence-free survival [RFS] and overall survival [OS]). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to select the best model, which was validated (n = 212) and tested (n = 300, including stage I-III) in independent cohorts. Reproducibility of the model was assessed using kappa statistics. Results: The best model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.749 for RFS and 0.787 for OS) was composed of a combination of predominant plus high-grade histologic pattern with a cutoff of 20% for the latter. The model consists of the following: grade 1, lepidic predominant tumor; grade 2, acinar or papillary predominant tumor, both with no or less than 20% of high-grade patterns; and grade 3, any tumor with 20% or more of high-grade patterns (solid, micropapillary, or complex gland). Similar results were seen in the validation (AUC = 0.732 for RFS and 0.787 for OS) and test cohorts (AUC = 0.690 for RFS and 0.743 for OS), confirming the predictive value of the model. Interobserver reproducibility revealed good agreement (k = 0.617). Conclusions: A grading system based on the predominant and high-grade patterns is practical and prognostic for invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma. (C) 2020 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Sholl, Lynette, et al. (författare)
  • The Promises and Challenges of Tumor Mutation Burden as an Immunotherapy Biomarker : A Perspective from the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic Oncology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1556-0864 .- 1556-1380. ; 15:9, s. 1409-1424
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies have revolutionized the management of patients with NSCLC and have led to unprecedented improvements in response rates and survival in a subset of patients with this fatal disease. However, the available therapies work only for a minority of patients, are associated with substantial societal cost, and may lead to considerable immune-related adverse events. Therefore, patient selection must be optimized through the use of relevant biomarkers. Programmed death-ligand 1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry is widely used today for the selection of programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor therapy in patients with NSCLC; however, this approach lacks robust sensitivity and specificity for predicting response. Tumor mutation burden (TMB), or the number of somatic mutations derived from next-generation sequencing techniques, has been widely explored as an alternative or complementary biomarker for response to ICIs. In theory, a higher TMB increases the probability of tumor neoantigen production and therefore, the likelihood of immune recognition and tumor cell killing. Although TMB alone is a simplistic surrogate of this complex interplay, it is a quantitative variable that can be relatively readily measured using currently available sequencing techniques. A large number of clinical trials and retrospective analyses, employing both tumor and blood-based sequencing tools, have evaluated the performance of TMB as a predictive biomarker, and in many cases reveal a correlation between high TMB and ICI response rates and progression-free survival. Many challenges remain before the implementation of TMB as a biomarker in clinical practice. These include the following: (1) identification of therapies whose response is best informed by TMB status; (2) robust definition of a predictive TMB cut point; (3) acceptable sequencing panel size and design; and (4) the need for robust technical and informatic rigor to generate precise and accurate TMB measurements across different laboratories. Finally, effective prediction of response to ICI therapy will likely require integration of TMB with a host of other potential biomarkers, including tumor genomic driver alterations, tumor-immune milieu, and other features of the host immune system. This perspective piece will review the current clinical evidence for TMB as a biomarker and address the technical sequencing considerations and ongoing challenges in the use of TMB in routine practice. (c) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.
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