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Sökning: WFRF:(Brand JS)

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1.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 478:7367, s. 103-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events(3). This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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  • Brand, Judith, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy and fractures in offspring : national register based sibling comparison study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1756-1833. ; 368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fractures in offspring during different developmental stages of life.DESIGN: National register based birth cohort study with a sibling comparison design.SETTING: Sweden.PARTICIPANTS: 1 680 307 people born in Sweden between 1983 and 2000 to women who smoked (n=377 367, 22.5%) and did not smoke (n=1 302 940) in early pregnancy. Follow-up was until 31 December 2014.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Fractures by attained age up to 32 years.RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 21.1 years, 377 970 fractures were observed (the overall incidence rate for fracture standardised by calendar year of birth was 11.8 per 1000 person years). The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of fracture in offspring differed by attained age. Maternal smoking was associated with a higher rate of fractures in offspring before 1 year of age in the entire cohort (birth year standardised fracture rates in those exposed and unexposed to maternal smoking were 1.59 and 1.28 per 1000 person years, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders the hazard ratio for maternal smoking compared with no smoking was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.45). This association followed a dose dependent pattern (compared with no smoking, hazard ratios for 1-9 cigarettes/day and >= 10 cigarettes/day were 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.39) and 1.41 (1.18 to 1.69), respectively) and persisted in within-sibship comparisons although with wider confidence intervals (compared with no smoking, 1.58 (1.01 to 2.46)). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was also associated with an increased fracture incidence in offspring from age 5 to 32 years in whole cohort analyses, but these associations did not follow a dose dependent gradient. In within-sibship analyses, which controls for confounding by measured and unmeasured shared familial factors, corresponding point estimates were all close to null. Maternal smoking was not associated with risk of fracture in offspring between the ages of 1 and 5 years in any of the models.CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with an increased rate of fracture during the first year of life but does not seem to have a long lasting biological influence on fractures later in childhood and up to early adulthood.
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  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
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6.
  • Borgquist, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to insulin and volumetric mammographic density : Observational and genetic associations in the Karma study
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Long-term insulin exposure has been implicated in breast cancer etiology, but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of insulin therapy with mammographic density (MD) as an intermediate phenotype for breast cancer and to assess associations with long-term elevated circulating insulin levels using a genetic score comprising 18 insulin-associated variants. Methods: We used data from the KARolinska MAmmography (Karma) project, a Swedish mammography screening cohort. Insulin-treated patients with type 1 (T1D, n = 122) and type 2 (T2D, n = 237) diabetes were identified through linkage with the Prescribed Drug Register and age-matched to 1771 women without diabetes. We assessed associations with treatment duration and insulin glargine use, and we further examined MD differences using non-insulin-treated T2D patients as an active comparator. MD was measured using a fully automated volumetric method, and analyses were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Associations with the insulin genetic score were assessed in 9437 study participants without diabetes. Results: Compared with age-matched women without diabetes, insulin-treated T1D patients had greater percent dense (8.7% vs. 11.4%) and absolute dense volumes (59.7 vs. 64.7 cm3), and a smaller absolute nondense volume (615 vs. 491 cm3). Similar associations were observed for insulin-treated T2D, and estimates were not materially different in analyses comparing insulin-treated T2D patients with T2D patients receiving noninsulin glucose-lowering medication. In both T1D and T2D, the magnitude of the association with the absolute dense volume was highest for long-term insulin therapy (≥ 5 years) and the long-acting insulin analog glargine. No consistent evidence of differential associations by insulin treatment duration or type was found for percent dense and absolute nondense volumes. Genetically predicted insulin levels were positively associated with percent dense and absolute dense volumes, but not with the absolute nondense volume (percentage difference [95% CI] per 1-SD increase in insulin genetic score = 0.8 [0.0; 1.6], 0.9 [0.1; 1.8], and 0.1 [- 0.8; 0.9], respectively). Conclusions: The consistency in direction of association for insulin treatment and the insulin genetic score with the absolute dense volume suggest a causal influence of long-term increased insulin exposure on mammographic dense breast tissue.
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7.
  • Brand, J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and Onset of Natural Menopause : Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition EDITORIAL COMMENT
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0029-7828 .- 1533-9866. ; 70:8, s. 507-508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The age at natural menopause (ANM) in the Western world ranges from 40 to 60 years, with an average onset of 51 years. The exact mechanisms underlying the timing of ANM are not completely understood. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved. The best-established environmental factor affecting ANM is smoking; menopause occurs 1 to 2 years earlier in smokers. In addition to genetic and environmental factors, chronic metabolic diseases may influence ANM. Some evidence suggests that diabetes may accelerate menopausal onset. With more women of childbearing age receiving a diagnosis of diabetes, it is important to examine the impact of diabetes on reproductive health. This study was designed to determine whether ANM occurs at an earlier age among women who have diabetes before menopause than in women without diabetes. Data were obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a large multicenter prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors and the incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases. A cohort of 519,978 men and women, mostly aged 27 to 70 years, were recruited primarily from the general population between 1992 and 2000. A total of 367,331 women participated in the EPIC study. After exclusions, 258,898 of these women met study inclusion criteria. Diabetes status at baseline and menopausal age were based on self-report and were obtained through questionnaires. Participants were asked if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes and if so at what age. Associations of diabetes and age at diabetes diagnosis with ANM were estimated using time-dependent Cox regression analyses, with stratification by center and adjustments for age, smoking, reproductive, and known diabetes risk factors including smoking and with age from birth to menopause or censoring as the underlying time scale. Overall, there was no statistically significant lower risk of becoming menopausal among women with diabetes than women with no diabetes; the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.94, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.89 to 1.01. However, compared with women with no diabetes, women with diabetes before the age of 20 years had an earlier menopause (10-20 years [HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.01] and <10 years [HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.03-2.43]), whereas women with diabetes at age 50 years or older had a later menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). No association with ANM was found for diabetes onset between the ages 20 and 50 years. Strengths of the study include its large sample size and the measurement of a broad set of potential confounders. However, there were several limitations. First, results may have been underestimated because of survival bias. Second, the sequence of menopause and diabetes in women with a late age at diabetes is uncertain, as both events occur in a short period, and both diabetes and menopause status were based on self-report, not verified by medical records. Third, no distinction was made between types 1 and 2 diabetes. Although there is no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, the data suggest that early-onset diabetes may accelerate menopause. The delaying effect of late-onset diabetes on ANM is not in agreement with other studies suggesting the opposite association.
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  • Granberg, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Enlarged perivascular spaces in multiple sclerosis on magnetic resonance imaging : a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - : Springer. - 0340-5354 .- 1432-1459.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Perivascular spaces can become detectable on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) upon enlargement, referred to as enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) or Virchow-Robin spaces. EPVS have been linked to small vessel disease. Some studies have also indicated an association of EPVS to neuroinflammation and/or neurodegeneration. However, there is conflicting evidence with regards to their potential as a clinically relevant imaging biomarker in multiple sclerosis (MS).METHODS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of EPVS as visualized by MRI in MS. Nine out of 299 original studies addressing EPVS in humans using MRI were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis including a total of 457 MS patients and 352 control subjects.RESULTS: In MS, EPVS have been associated with cognitive decline, contrast-enhancing MRI lesions, and brain atrophy. Yet, these associations were not consistent between studies. The meta-analysis revealed that MS patients have greater EPVS prevalence (odds ratio = 4.61, 95% CI = [1.84; 11.60], p = 0.001) as well as higher EPVS counts (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.46, 95% CI = [0.26; 0.67], p < 0.001) and larger volumes (SMD = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.19; 1.56], p = 0.01) compared to controls.CONCLUSIONS: Available literature suggests a higher EPVS burden in MS patients compared to controls. The association of EPVS to neuroinflammatory or -degenerative pathology in MS remains inconsistent. Thus, there is currently insufficient evidence supporting EPVS as diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in MS. In order to benefit future comparisons of studies, we propose recommendations on EPVS assessment standardization in MS. PROSPERO No: CRD42019133946.
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10.
  • Hedayati, E., et al. (författare)
  • Outcome and presentation of heart failure in breast cancer patients : Findings from a Swedish register-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. - : Oxford University Press. - 2058-5225 .- 2058-1742. ; 6:2, s. 147-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Heart failure (HF) patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) may have a higher risk of death, and different HF presentation and treatment than patients without BC.Methods and results: A total of 14 998 women with incident HF (iHF) or prevalent HF (pHF) enrolled in the Swedish HF Registry within and after 1 month since HF diagnosis, respectively, between 2008 and 2013. Patients were linked with the National Patient-, Cancer-, and Cause-of-Death Registry. Two hundred and ninety-four iHF and 338 pHF patients with BC were age-matched to 1470 iHF and 1690 pHF patients without BC. Comorbidity and treatment characteristics were compared using the χ2 tests for categories. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among HF patients with and without BC. In the pHF group, BC patients had less often myocardial infarction (21.6% vs. 28.6%, P < 0.01) and received less often aspirin (47.6% vs. 55.1%, P = 0.01), coronary revascularization (11.8% vs. 16.2%, P < 0.01), or device therapy (0.9% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.03). After median follow-up of 2 years, risk of all-cause mortality (iHF: HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.83-1.29 and pHF: HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.79-1.12), cardiovascular mortality (iHF: HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.71-1.24 and pHF: HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.10), and HF mortality (iHF: HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.34-1.90 and pHF: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.43-1.29) were similar for patients with and without BC in the iHF and pHF groups.Conclusion: Risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in HF patients did not differ by BC status. Differences in pre-existing myocardial infarction and HF treatment among pHF patients with and without BC may suggest differences in pathogenesis of HF. 
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