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Sökning: WFRF:(Brekke Mette)

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1.
  • Brekke, Hilde Kristin, 1972, et al. (författare)
  • Attitudes and barriers to dietary advice aimed at reducing risk of type 2 diabetes in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. - 0952-3871. ; 17:6, s. 513-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitudes to and adoption of dietary advice in nondiabetic first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and to examine barriers to adherence. DESIGN: One-year controlled intervention study, where treatment group (n=73) received lifestyle education. Attitudes towards dietary advice, change in dietary habits and importance of potential barriers to adherence were evaluated by questionnaires. Nondiabetic relatives (25-55 years; males and females) of individuals with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Education was based on current nutrition recommendations and aimed at improving dietary fat quality, increasing intake of fruit and vegetables, with additional advice to reduce dietary glycaemic index (GI). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Attitudes and importance of barriers were classified by the intervened subjects into four categories ranging from 'No problem' to 'Yes, definitely a problem'. Dietary adherence was monitored by food frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 1 year. RESULTS: Participants were generally in favour of advice aimed at improving dietary fat quality. Attitudes towards advice to reduce GI varied widely. Food selection changed in accordance with predefined dietary goals. 'Forgetfulness', 'low availability in lunch restaurant' and 'lack of ideas for cooking' were barriers to adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary advice aimed at reducing risk of type 2 diabetes was generally positively received and adopted in subjects with heredity for the disease. The most prevalent barriers reported are potentially modifiable.
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2.
  • Brekke, Helge R, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic Changes in Chromosomes 10, 16, and X in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors Identify a High-Risk Patient Group.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 28, s. 1573-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify genetic aberrations contributing to clinical aggressiveness of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Samples from 48 MPNSTs and 10 neurofibromas were collected from 51 patients with (n = 31) or without (n = 20) neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Genome-wide DNA copy number changes were assessed by chromosomal and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and examined for prognostic significance. For a subset of 20 samples, RNA microarray data were integrated with the genome data to identify potential target genes. RESULTS: Forty-four (92%) MPNSTs displayed DNA copy number changes (median, 18 changes per tumor; range, 2 to 35 changes). Known frequent chromosomal gains at chromosome arms 8q (69%), 17q (67%), and 7p (52%) and losses from 9p (50%), 11q (48%), and 17p (44%) were confirmed. Additionally, gains at 16p or losses from 10q or Xq identified a high-risk group with only 11% 10-year disease-specific survival (P = .00005). Multivariate analyses including NF1 status, tumor location, size, grade, sex, complete remission, and initial metastatic status showed that the genomic high-risk group was the most significant predictor of poor survival. Several genes whose expression was affected by the DNA copy number aberrations were identified. CONCLUSION: The presence of specific genetic aberrations was strongly associated with poor survival independent of known clinical risk factors. Conversely, within the total patient cohort with 34% 10-year disease-specific survival, a low-risk group was identified: without changes at chromosomes 10q, 16p, or Xq in their MPNSTs, the patients had 74% 10-year survival.
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3.
  • Harris, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • How European primary care practitioners think the timeliness of cancer diagnosis can be improved : a thematic analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 9:9, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background National European cancer survival rates vary widely. Prolonged diagnostic intervals are thought to be a key factor in explaining these variations. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) frequently play a crucial role during initial cancer diagnosis; their knowledge could be used to improve the planning of more effective approaches to earlier cancer diagnosis. Objectives This study sought the views of PCPs from across Europe on how they thought the timeliness of cancer diagnosis could be improved. Design In an online survey, a final open-ended question asked PCPs how they thought the speed of diagnosis of cancer in primary care could be improved. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting A primary care study, with participating centres in 20 European countries. Participants A total of 1352 PCPs answered the final survey question, with a median of 48 per country. Results The main themes identified were: patient-related factors, including health education; care provider-related factors, including continuing medical education; improving communication and interprofessional partnership, particularly between primary and secondary care; factors relating to health system organisation and policies, including improving access to healthcare; easier primary care access to diagnostic tests; and use of information technology. Re-allocation of funding to support timely diagnosis was seen as an issue affecting all of these. Conclusions To achieve more timely cancer diagnosis, health systems need to facilitate earlier patient presentation through education and better access to care, have well-educated clinicians with good access to investigations and better information technology, and adequate primary care cancer diagnostic pathway funding.
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4.
  • Harris, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying important health system factors that influence primary care practitioners' referrals for cancer suspicion : a European cross-sectional survey.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 8:9, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Cancer survival and stage of disease at diagnosis and treatment vary widely across Europe. These differences may be partly due to variations in access to investigations and specialists. However, evidence to explain how different national health systems influence primary care practitioners' (PCPs') referral decisions is lacking.This study analyses health system factors potentially influencing PCPs' referral decision-making when consulting with patients who may have cancer, and how these vary between European countries.DESIGN: Based on a content-validity consensus, a list of 45 items relating to a PCP's decisions to refer patients with potential cancer symptoms for further investigation was reduced to 20 items. An online questionnaire with the 20 items was answered by PCPs on a five-point Likert scale, indicating how much each item affected their own decision-making in patients that could have cancer. An exploratory factor analysis identified the factors underlying PCPs' referral decision-making.SETTING: A primary care study; 25 participating centres in 20 European countries.PARTICIPANTS: 1830 PCPs completed the survey. The median response rate for participating centres was 20.7%.OUTCOME MEASURES: The factors derived from items related to PCPs' referral decision-making. Mean factor scores were produced for each country, allowing comparisons.RESULTS: Factor analysis identified five underlying factors: PCPs' ability to refer; degree of direct patient access to secondary care; PCPs' perceptions of being under pressure; expectations of PCPs' role; and extent to which PCPs believe that quality comes before cost in their health systems. These accounted for 47.4% of the observed variance between individual responses.CONCLUSIONS: Five healthcare system factors influencing PCPs' referral decision-making in 20 European countries were identified. The factors varied considerably between European countries. Knowledge of these factors could assist development of health service policies to produce better cancer outcomes, and inform future research to compare national cancer diagnostic pathways and outcomes.
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5.
  • Skjeie, Holgeir, et al. (författare)
  • Acupuncture treatments for infantile colic : a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of blinding test validated randomised controlled trials
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0281-3432. ; 36:1, s. 56-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Needle acupuncture in small children has gained some acceptance in Western medicine. It is controversial, as infants and toddlers are unable to consent to treatment. We aimed to assess its efficacy for treating infantile colic. Design: A systematic review and a blinding-test validation based on individual patient data from randomised controlled trials. Primary end-points were crying time at mid-treatment, at the end of treatment and at a 1-month follow-up. A 30-min mean difference (MD) in crying time between acupuncture and control was predefined as a clinically important difference. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the James and Bang indices were used to test the success of blinding of the outcome assessors [parents]. Eligibility criteria and data sources: We included randomised controlled trials of acupuncture treatments of infantile colic. Systematic searches were conducted in Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and AMED, and in the Chinese language databases CNKI, VIP, Wang fang, SinoMed and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Results: We included three randomised controlled trials with data from 307 participants. Only one of the included trials obtained a successful blinding of the outcome assessors in both the acupuncture and control groups. The MD in crying time between acupuncture intervention and no acupuncture control was −24.9 min [95% confidence interval, CI −46.2 to −3.6; three trials] at mid-treatment, −11.4 min [95% CI −31.8 to 9.0; three trials] at the end of treatment and −11.8 min [95% CI −62.9 to 39.2; one trial] at the 4-week follow-up. The corresponding standardised mean differences [SMDs] were −0.23 [95% CI −0.42 to −0.06], −0.10 [95% CI −0.29 to 0.08] and −0.09 [95% CI −0.48 to 0.30]. The heterogeneity was negligible in all analyses. The statistically significant result at mid-treatment was lost when excluding the apparently unblinded study in a sensitivity analysis: MD −13.8 min [95%CI −37.5 to 9.9] and SMD −0.13 [95%CI −0.35 to 0.09]. The registration of crying during treatment suggested more crying during acupuncture [odds ratio 7.7; 95% CI 2.7–20.6; one trial]. GRADE-Moderate quality evidence. Conclusions: Percutaneous needle acupuncture treatments should not be recommended for infantile colic on a general basis. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015023253Key pointsThe role of acupuncture in the treatment of infantile colic is controversial. Available trials are small and present conflicting results.There were no clinically important differences between infants receiving acupuncture and no acupuncture control in this IPD meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.The data indicate that acupuncture induces some treatment pain in many of the children.The study results indicate that percutaneous needle acupuncture should not be recommended for treatment of infantile colic on a general basis.
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