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Sökning: WFRF:(Broberg Per)

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1.
  • Alhamdow, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • Chimney sweeps in Sweden : : a questionnaire-based assessment of long-term changes in work conditions, and current eye and airway symptoms
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - Springer. - 0340-0131. ; 90:2, s. 207-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To explore chimney sweeping work tasks, chimney sweeps’ use of protective equipment, and type of fuel used by clients, over time. Further, to assess work-relatedness of current eye and airway symptoms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2011, male Swedish chimney sweeps (n = 483; age 21–69 years) answered a questionnaire about their occupational history and eye and airway symptoms. Results: Between 1960 and 2010, black-soot-sweeping in private homes was the major task, although it decreased during the time period, for chimney sweeps. Between 1975 and 2010, the use of petroleum oil decreased, whereas the use of pellets and wood increased. Also, the use of gloves and masks increased significantly. Black-soot-sweeping in industry was associated with work-related eye symptoms (prevalence odds ratio POR = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.72–8.24, for every 10% increment of working time, adjusted for age and tobacco smoking). Chimney sweeps also had slightly higher prevalence of cough with increasing black-soot-sweeping (POR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99–1.13 for every 10% increment, further adjusted for the use of mask), and the association was more pronounced, although nonsignificant, for black-soot-sweeping in industry (adjusted POR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.98–1.61). Conclusions: Chimney sweeping tasks and use of protective equipment as well as type of fuel used by the clients changed significantly over the last 35 years, which may have changed chimney sweeps’ exposure to soot. Still, chimney sweeps in Sweden have black-soot-sweeping-related eye and airway symptoms.
2.
  • Alhamdow, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • DNA-methylation of the cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR is associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 39:7, s. 869-878
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. The median 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH metabolite) concentrations were highest in creosote-exposed workers (8.0 μg/g creatinine) followed by chimney sweeps (0.34 μg/g creatinine) and controls (0.05 μg/g creatinine). TL and mtDNAcn did not differ between study groups. Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers had significantly lower methylation of AHRR CpG site cg05575921 (88.1% and 84.9%, respectively) than controls (90%). Creosote-exposed workers (73.3%), but not chimney sweeps (76.6%) had lower methylation of F2RL3 cg03636183 than controls (76.7%). Linear regression analyses showed that chimney sweeps had lower AHRR cg05575921 methylation (B=-2.04; P<0.057, adjusted for smoking and age) and lower average AHRR methylation (B=-2.05; P<0.035), and non-smoking chimney sweeps had lower average F2RL3 methylation (B=-0.81; P<0.042, adjusted for age) compared with controls. These cancer-related markers were not associated with urinary concentrations of PAH metabolites. In conclusion, although we found no associations with PAH metabolites in urine (short-term exposure), our results suggest dose-response relationship between PAH exposure and DNA hypomethylation of lung cancer-related loci. These findings indicate that further protective measures should be taken to reduce PAH exposure.
3.
  • Alhamdow, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • Early markers of cardiovascular disease are associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Occupational exposure to soot, rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, our knowledge about PAH exposure and early markers of CVD remains limited. In this cross-sectional study of 151 chimney sweeps and 152 controls, we investigated occupational exposure to PAH and early markers of CVD. Blood pressure (BP) (chimney sweeps only), urinary PAH metabolites and serum biomarkers were measured (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, gamma-glutamyltransferase, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides). Chimney sweeps had up to 7 times higher concentrations of PAH metabolites in urine than controls (P < 0.001): Median concentrations (adjusted for specific gravity) for 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]anthracene were 0.56 μg/L, 0.78 μg/L, 4.75 ng/L, and 6.28 ng/L, respectively. Compared with controls, chimney sweeps had increased homocysteine, cholesterol, and HDL (β = 3.4 μmol/L, 0.43 mmol/L, and 0.13 mmol/L, respectively, P ≤ 0.003, adjusted for age, BMI, and smoking). In chimney sweeps, PAH metabolites correlated positively with the percentage of soot sweeping (P < 0.001). 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]anthracene were positively associated with diastolic BP (P < 0.044, adjusted for age, BMI, and smoking). PAH exposure among chimney sweeps resulted in elevated levels of markers for CVD risk. These findings stress the need to reduce occupational exposure to PAH.
4.
  • Alhamdow, A, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorene exposure among PAH-exposed workers is associated with epigenetic markers related to lung cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Occupational and environmental medicine. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926. ; 77:7, s. 488-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Exposure to high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause cancer in chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers, however, knowledge about exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in relation to cancer risk is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate occupational exposure to the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene in relation to different cancer biomarkers. METHODS: We recruited 151 chimney sweeps, 19 creosote-exposed workers and 152 unexposed workers (controls), all men. We measured monohydroxylated metabolites of phenanthrene and fluorene in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We measured, in peripheral blood, the cancer biomarkers telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number using quantitative PCR; and DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. RESULTS: Median PAH metabolite concentrations were higher among chimney sweeps (up to 3 times) and creosote-exposed workers (up to 353 times), compared with controls (p<0.001; adjusted for age and smoking). ∑OH-fluorene (sum of 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene) showed inverse associations with percentage DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR in chimney sweeps (B (95% CI)=-2.7 (-3.9 to -1.5) for F2RL3_cg03636183, and -7.1 (-9.6 to -4.7) for AHRR_cg05575921: adjusted for age and smoking), but not in creosote-exposed workers. In addition, ∑OH-fluorene showed a 42% mediation effect on the inverse association between being a chimney sweep and DNA methylation of AHRR CpG2. CONCLUSIONS: Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers were occupationally exposed to low-molecular-weight PAHs. Increasing fluorene exposure, among chimney sweeps, was associated with lower DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR, markers for increased lung cancer risk. These findings warrant further investigation of fluorene exposure and toxicity.
5.
  • Budnik, Lygia Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment : DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6673. ; 13:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and allergies, are predictable and preventable. Consequently, preventative action could lead to decreasing disease morbidity and mortality for many of the NCDs that are of major public concern. DiMoPEx plans to catalyze and stimulate interaction of scientists with policy-makers in attacking these exposure-related diseases.
6.
  • Escala-Garcia, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of germline variants and breast cancer-specific mortality
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 120:6, s. 647-657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using similar to 10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P&lt;5 x 10(-8). For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 x 10(-7), hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [ CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7: rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 x 10(-7), HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP &lt;15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.</p>
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7.
8.
  • Kar, Siddhartha P., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Meta-Analyses of Breast, Ovarian, and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by at Least Two Cancer Types
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Discovery. - AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 2159-8274 .- 2159-8290. ; 6:9, s. 1052-1067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis, but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349 cases and 116,421 controls of European ancestry, all together and in pairs, identified at P &lt; 10 -8 seven new cross-cancer loci: three associated with susceptibility to all three cancers (rs17041869/2q13/BCL2L11; rs7937840/11q12/INCENP; rs1469713/19p13/GATAD2A), two breast and ovarian cancer risk loci (rs200182588/9q31/SMC2; rs8037137/15q26/RCCD1), and two breast and prostate cancer risk loci (rs5013329/1p34/NSUN4; rs9375701/6q23/L3MBTL3). Index variants in five additional regions previously associated with only one cancer also showed clear association with a second cancer type. Cell-type-specific expression quantitative trait locus and enhancer-gene interaction annotations suggested target genes with potential cross-cancer roles at the new loci. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of death receptor signaling genes near loci with P &lt; 10(-5) in the three-cancer meta-analysis. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that combining large-scale GWA meta-analysis findings across cancer types can identify completely new risk loci common to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. We show that the identification of such cross-cancer risk loci has the potential to shed new light on the shared biology underlying these hormone-related cancers. (C) 2016 AACR.</p>
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9.
  • Kar, Siddhartha P, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Meta-Analyses of Breast, Ovarian, and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by at Least Two Cancer Types
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer discovery. - 2159-8290. ; 6:9, s. 1052-1067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • UNLABELLED: Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis, but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349 cases and 116,421 controls of European ancestry, all together and in pairs, identified at P < 10(-8) seven new cross-cancer loci: three associated with susceptibility to all three cancers (rs17041869/2q13/BCL2L11; rs7937840/11q12/INCENP; rs1469713/19p13/GATAD2A), two breast and ovarian cancer risk loci (rs200182588/9q31/SMC2; rs8037137/15q26/RCCD1), and two breast and prostate cancer risk loci (rs5013329/1p34/NSUN4; rs9375701/6q23/L3MBTL3). Index variants in five additional regions previously associated with only one cancer also showed clear association with a second cancer type. Cell-type-specific expression quantitative trait locus and enhancer-gene interaction annotations suggested target genes with potential cross-cancer roles at the new loci. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of death receptor signaling genes near loci with P < 10(-5) in the three-cancer meta-analysis.SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that combining large-scale GWA meta-analysis findings across cancer types can identify completely new risk loci common to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. We show that the identification of such cross-cancer risk loci has the potential to shed new light on the shared biology underlying these hormone-related cancers. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 1052-67. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 932.
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10.
  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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