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Sökning: WFRF:(Brons C)

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1.
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2.
  • Eckhardt, Corien L., et al. (författare)
  • Factor VIII gene (F8) mutation and risk of inhibitor development in nonsevere hemophilia A
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 122:11, s. 1954-1962
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) toward factor VIII form a severe complication in nonsevere hemophilia A, profoundly aggravating the bleeding pattern. Identification of high-risk patients is hampered by lack of data that take exposure days to therapeutic factor VIII concentrates into account. In the INSIGHT study, we analyzed the association between F8 mutation and inhibitor development in patients with nonsevere hemophilia A (factor VIII 2-40 IU/dL). This analysis included 1112 nonsevere hemophilia A patients from 14 centers in Europe and Australia that had genotyped at least 70% of their patients. Inhibitor risk was calculated as Kaplan-Meier incidence with cumulative number of exposure days as the time variable. During 44 800 exposure days (median, 24 exposure days per patient; interquartile range [IQR], 7-90), 59 of the 1112 patients developed an inhibitor; cumulative incidence of 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-6.6) after a median of 28 exposure days (IQR, 12-71). The inhibitor risk at 50 exposure days was 6.7% (95% CI, 4.5-8.9) and at 100 exposure days the risk further increased to 13.3% (95% CI, 9.6-17.0). Among a total of 214 different F8 missense mutations 19 were associated with inhibitor development. These results emphasize the importance of F8 genotyping in nonsevere hemophilia A.
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3.
  • Gillberg, Linn, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue transcriptomics and epigenomics in low birthweight men and controls : role of high-fat overfeeding
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:4, s. 799-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. Methods mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. Results We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false discovery rate < 5%), including sites in the FADS2 and CPLX1 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes. When we used reference-free cell mixture adjustments to potentially adjust for cell composition, 4,323 sites had differential methylation in LBW vs NBW men. However, no differences in SAT gene expression levels were identified between LBW and NBW men. In the combined group of all 40 participants, 3,276 genes (16.5%) were differentially expressed in SAT after HFO (false discovery rate < 5%) and there was no difference between LBW men and controls. The most strongly upregulated genes were ELOVL6, FADS2 and NNAT; in contrast, INSR, IRS2 and the SLC27A2 fatty acid transporter showed decreased expression after HFO. Interestingly, SLC27A2 expression correlated negatively with diabetes- and obesity-related traits in a replication cohort of 142 individuals. DNA methylation at 652 CpG sites (including in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Conclusions/interpretation Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding influences gene transcription and, to some extent, DNA methylation in adipose tissue; there was no major difference in this response between LBW and control participants.
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4.
  • Rönn, Tina, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:13, s. 3792-3813
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed DNA methylation of ∼480,000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females, and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1,050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of ageing in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2,825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with methylation of 711 sites, annotated to e.g. RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for metabolic diseases and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue.
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5.
  • Jacobsen, S. C., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of short-term high-fat overfeeding on genome-wide DNA methylation in the skeletal muscle of healthy young men
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 55:12, s. 3341-3349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Energy-dense diets that are high in fat are associated with a risk of metabolic diseases. The underlying molecular mechanisms could involve epigenetics, as recent data show altered DNA methylation of putative type 2 diabetes candidate genes in response to high-fat diets. We examined the effect of a short-term high-fat overfeeding (HFO) diet on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in human skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 21 healthy young men after ingestion of a short-term HFO diet and a control diet, in a randomised crossover setting. DNA methylation was measured in 27,578 CpG sites/14,475 genes using Illumina's Infinium Bead Array. Candidate gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. HFO introduced widespread DNA methylation changes affecting 6,508 genes (45%), with a maximum methylation change of 13.0 percentage points. The HFO-induced methylation changes were only partly and non-significantly reversed after 6-8 weeks. Alterations in DNA methylation levels primarily affected genes involved in inflammation, the reproductive system and cancer. Few gene expression changes were observed and these had poor correlation to DNA methylation. The genome-wide DNA methylation changes induced by the short-term HFO diet could have implications for our understanding of transient epigenetic regulation in humans and its contribution to the development of metabolic diseases. The slow reversibility suggests a methylation build-up with HFO, which over time may influence gene expression levels.
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6.
  • Pilgaard, K., et al. (författare)
  • The T allele of rs7903146 TCF7L2 is associated with impaired insulinotropic action of incretin hormones, reduced 24 h profiles of plasma insulin and glucagon, and increased hepatic glucose production in young healthy men
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 52:7, s. 1298-1307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied the physiological, metabolic and hormonal mechanisms underlying the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in carriers of TCF7L2 gene. We undertook genotyping of 81 healthy young Danish men for rs7903146 of TCF7L2 and carried out various beta cell tests including: 24 h glucose, insulin and glucagon profiles; OGTT; mixed meal test; IVGTT; hyperglycaemic clamp with co-infusion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp combined with glucose tracer infusion to study hepatic and peripheral insulin action. Carriers of the T allele were characterised by reduced 24 h insulin concentrations (p < 0.05) and reduced insulin secretion relative to glucose during a mixed meal test (beta index: p < 0.003), but not during an IVGTT. This was further supported by reduced late-phase insulinotropic action of GLP-1 (p = 0.03) and GIP (p = 0.07) during a 7 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Secretion of GLP-1 and GIP during the mixed meal test was normal. Despite elevated hepatic glucose production, carriers of the T allele had significantly reduced 24 h glucagon concentrations (p < 0.02) suggesting altered alpha cell function. Elevated hepatic glucose production and reduced insulinotropic effect of incretin hormones contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in carriers of the rs7903146 risk T allele of TCF7L2.
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7.
  • Volkov, P., et al. (författare)
  • A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs) in cis and 5,342 SNP-CpG pairs in trans showing significant associations between genotype and DNA methylation in adipose tissue after correction for multiple testing, where cis is defined as distance less than 500 kb between a SNP and CpG site. These mQTLs include reported obesity, lipid and type 2 diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY3/POMC, APOA5, CETP, FADS2, GCKR, SORT1 and LEPR. Significant mQTLs were overrepresented in intergenic regions meanwhile underrepresented in promoter regions and CpG islands. We further identified 635 SNPs in significant cis-mQTLs associated with expression of 86 genes in adipose tissue including CHRNA5, G6PC2, GPX7, RPL27A, THNSL2 and ZFP57. SNPs in significant mQTLs were also associated with body mass index (BMI), lipid traits and glucose and insulin levels in our study cohort and public available consortia data. Importantly, the Causal Inference Test (CIT) demonstrates how genetic variants mediate their effects on metabolic traits (e.g. BMI, cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein (HDL), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) via altered DNA methylation in human adipose tissue. This study identifies genome-wide interactions between genetic and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dys) metabolic traits associated with the development of obesity and diabetes.
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8.
  • Jacobsen, Stine C., et al. (författare)
  • Young men with low birthweight exhibit decreased plasticity of genome-wide muscle DNA methylation by high-fat overfeeding
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 57:6, s. 1154-1158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after a control and a 5 day high-fat overfeeding diet. Methods DNA methylation was measured using Illumina's Infinium BeadArray covering 27,578 CpG sites representing 14,475 different genes. Results After correction for multiple comparisons, DNA methylation levels were found to be similar in the LBW and NBW groups during the control diet. Whereas widespread DNA methylation changes were observed in the NBW group in response to high-fat overfeeding, only a few methylation changes were seen in the LBW group (chi(2), p < 0.001). Conclusions/interpretation Our results indicate lower DNA methylation plasticity in skeletal muscle from LBW vs NBW men, potentially contributing to understanding the link between LBW and increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
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9.
  • Vaag, Allan, et al. (författare)
  • The thrifty phenotype hypothesis revisited
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 55:8, s. 2085-2088
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twenty years ago, Hales and Barker along with their co-workers published some of their pioneering papers proposing the 'thrifty phenotype hypothesis' in Diabetologia (4;35:595-601 and 3;36:62-67). Their postulate that fetal programming could represent an important player in the origin of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD) was met with great scepticism. More recently, their observations have been confirmed and expanded in many epidemiological and animal experimental studies, and human integrative physiological studies have provided insights into some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes is a multiple-organ disease, and developmental programming, with its idea of organ plasticity, is a plausible hypothesis for a common basis for the widespread organ dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Only two among the 45 known type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes are associated with low birthweight, indicating that the association between low birthweight and type 2 diabetes is mainly non-genetic. Prevention programmes targeting adult lifestyle factors seems unable to stop the global propagation of type 2 diabetes, and intensive glucose control is inadequate to reduce the excess CVD mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. Today, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis has been established as a promising conceptual framework for a more sustainable intergenerational prevention of type 2 diabetes.
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