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  • Patel, Riyaz S., et al. (författare)
  • Subsequent Event Risk in Individuals With Established Coronary Heart Disease : Design and Rationale of the GENIUS-CHD Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD.METHODS: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185 614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events.RESULTS: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with a duration of follow-up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14-1.16) per 5-year increase, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21) and smoking (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.51) with risk of subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction and differing associations with other individual and composite cardiovascular endpoints.CONCLUSIONS: GENIUS-CHD is a global collaboration seeking to elucidate genetic and nongenetic determinants of subsequent event risk in individuals with established CHD, to improve residual risk prediction and identify novel drug targets for secondary prevention. Initial analyses demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a federated analysis approach. The consortium now plans to initiate and test novel hypotheses as well as supporting replication and validation analyses for other investigators.
  • Patel, Riyaz S., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Chromosome 9p21 With Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Events : A GENIUS-CHD Study of Individual Participant Data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 is a recognized risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its effect on disease progression and subsequent events is unclear, raising questions about its value for stratification of residual risk.METHODS: A variant at chromosome 9p21 (rs1333049) was tested for association with subsequent events during follow-up in 103 357 Europeans with established CHD at baseline from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) Consortium (73.1% male, mean age 62.9 years). The primary outcome, subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction (CHD death/myocardial infarction), occurred in 13 040 of the 93 115 participants with available outcome data. Effect estimates were compared with case/control risk obtained from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics) including 47 222 CHD cases and 122 264 controls free of CHD.RESULTS: Meta-analyses revealed no significant association between chromosome 9p21 and the primary outcome of CHD death/myocardial infarction among those with established CHD at baseline (GENIUSCHD odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05). This contrasted with a strong association in CARDIoGRAMPlusC4D odds ratio 1.20; 95% CI, 1.18-1.22; P for interaction < 0.001 compared with the GENIUS-CHD estimate. Similarly, no clear associations were identified for additional subsequent outcomes, including all-cause death, although we found a modest positive association between chromosome 9p21 and subsequent revascularization (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09).CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to studies comparing individuals with CHD to disease-free controls, we found no clear association between genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 and risk of subsequent acute CHD events when all individuals had CHD at baseline. However, the association with subsequent revascularization may support the postulated mechanism of chromosome 9p21 for promoting atheroma development.
  • Zewinger, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Relations between lipoprotein(a) concentrations, LPA genetic variants, and the risk of mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease : A molecular and genetic association study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 2213-8587 .- 2213-8595. ; 5:7, s. 534-543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma are associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Whether lipoprotein(a) concentrations or LPA genetic variants predict long-term mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease remains less clear. Methods: We obtained data from 3313 patients with established coronary heart disease in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. We tested associations of tertiles of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma and two LPA single-nucleotide polymorphisms ([SNPs] rs10455872 and rs3798220) with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality by Cox regression analysis and with severity of disease by generalised linear modelling, with and without adjustment for age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, BMI, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL-cholesterol concentration, and use of lipid-lowering therapy. Results for plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations were validated in five independent studies involving 10 195 patients with established coronary heart disease. Results for genetic associations were replicated through large-scale collaborative analysis in the GENIUS-CHD consortium, comprising 106 353 patients with established coronary heart disease and 19 332 deaths in 22 studies or cohorts. Findings: The median follow-up was 9·9 years. Increased severity of coronary heart disease was associated with lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma in the highest tertile (adjusted hazard radio [HR] 1·44, 95% CI 1·14-1·83) and the presence of either LPA SNP (1·88, 1·40-2·53). No associations were found in LURIC with all-cause mortality (highest tertile of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma 0·95, 0·81-1·11 and either LPA SNP 1·10, 0·92-1·31) or cardiovascular mortality (0·99, 0·81-1·2 and 1·13, 0·90-1·40, respectively) or in the validation studies. Interpretation: In patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, lipoprotein(a) concentrations and genetic variants showed no associations with mortality. We conclude that these variables are not useful risk factors to measure to predict progression to death after coronary heart disease is established. Funding: Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technical Development (AtheroRemo and RiskyCAD), INTERREG IV Oberrhein Programme, Deutsche Nierenstiftung, Else-Kroener Fresenius Foundation, Deutsche Stiftung für Herzforschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Saarland University, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Willy Robert Pitzer Foundation, and Waldburg-Zeil Clinics Isny.
  • Stemann Larsen, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 27:4, s. 393-414
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net. Methods European pregnancy and birth cohorts initiated in 1980 or later with at least 300 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy or at birth, and with postnatal data, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible cohorts were invited to provide information on the data and biological samples collected, as well as the timing of data collection. Results In total, 70 cohorts were identified. Of these, 56 fulfilled the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of more than 500000 live-born European children. The cohorts represented 19 countries with the majority of cohorts located in Northern and Western Europe. Some cohorts were general with multiple aims, whilst others focused on specific health or exposure-related research questions. Conclusion This work demonstrates a great potential for cross-cohort collaboration addressing important aspects of child health. The web site, http://www.birthcohorts.net, proved to be a useful tool for accessing information on European pregnancy and birth cohorts and their characteristics.
  • Brophy, D F, et al. (författare)
  • Monitoring rFVIIa 90 μg kg(-1) dosing in haemophiliacs: comparing laboratory response using various whole blood assays over 6 h.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Haemophilia. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1351-8216. ; 17:5, s. 949-957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary. Recombinant FVIIa is a haemostatic agent administered to patients with severe FVIII or FIX deficiency with inhibitors. Although rFVIIa is effective at stopping bleeding, a reliable assay to monitor its effect is lacking. To characterize the pharmacokinetics and global coagulation effects of rFVIIa for 6 h following a IV dose of 90 μg kg(-1) . Ten non-bleeding subjects with severe FVIII or FIX deficiency were infused with a single-dose of rFVIIa 90 μg kg(-1) body weight and blood was collected before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h postdose. Global haemostasis was characterized throughout the study utilizing whole blood analyses (Hemodyne HAS, TEG, ROTEM). The clearance and half-life of factor FVII:C was estimated as 39.0 ± 8.8 mL h(-1) kg(-1) and 2.1 ± 0.2 h respectively. There was good inter-assay agreement with respect to clot initiation parameters (R, CT and FOT) and these parameters all fell to a mean of approximately 9 min following rFVIIa dosing. The platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) were positively correlated to FVII:C (P < 0.0001), and these parameters were dynamic throughout the 6-h period. The MA and MCF did not correlate to FVII:C nor did they significantly change during the study. Prothrombin F1 + 2 significantly increased following rFVIIa dosing (P < 0.001), but remained steady throughout the study. There was no change in D-dimer concentrations over time. The FOT, R and CT characterized clot initiation following rFVIIa dosing. The PCF and CEM were correlated to FVII:C and characterized the dynamics of platelet function and clot strength over the rFVIIa dosing interval. The clinical significance of these findings needs additional study.
  • Brophy, Donald F, et al. (författare)
  • Overcoming delayed in-vitro response to rFVIIa: effects of rFVIIa and rFVIIa analogue (vatreptacog alfa) concentration escalation in whole blood assays.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. - : Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. - 1473-5733. ; 22, s. 541-546
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a previous pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study in nonbleeding hemophilia patients, variability in laboratory response to recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) 90 μg/kg was noted, and the patients were described as delayed or rapid laboratory responders based on time to clot formation. The current study determined whether in-vitro experiments could reproduce previous in-vivo findings; whether the delayed laboratory response to rFVIIa 90 μg/kg is improved by spiking with high-dose rFVIIa or rFVIIa analogue (vatreptacog alfa); whether a dose-response is observed with our method. In-vitro experiments were conducted in our previous patient cohort using rFVIIa 1.28 and 3.84 μg/ml and vatreptacog alfa 0.28 and 0.56 μg/ml. Whole blood studies were conducted using the Hemodyne Hemostasis Analysis System (platelet contractile force, clot elastic modulus, force onset time) and rotational thromboelastometry (clotting time, maximum clot firmness). Spiking with rFVIIa 1.28 μg/ml showed the same distribution of delayed and rapid laboratory response as observed previously. Increasing in-vitro rFVIIa concentrations improved the coagulation parameters; however, there remained delayed and rapid responders. Vatreptacog alfa improved the coagulation parameters at all concentrations tested, and the 0.56 μg/ml concentration normalized the force onset time, platelet contractile force, clot elastic modulus and clotting time parameters. A dose-response was observed with both assays. There was good agreement between the laboratory responses obtained after intravenous administration of rFVIIa 90 μg/kg and in-vitro spiking studies. Escalating rFVIIa and vatreptacog alfa concentrations improved coagulation parameters in all patients compared to rFVIIa 1.28 μg/ml. Vatreptacog alfa produced more pronounced coagulation effects at lower concentrations than rFVIIa; and the 0.56 μg/ml concentration completely normalized responses in all patients.
  • Agersø, H, et al. (författare)
  • Recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) cleared principally by antithrombin following IV administration in haemophilia patients.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1538-7933. ; 9:2, s. 333-338
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and the clearance pathways of rFVIIa after intravenous administration to haemophilia patients. Methods: Ten severe haemophilia patients were included in the study; all patients were intravenously administered a clinical relevant dose of 90 μg/kg (1.8 nmol/kg) rFVIIa. Blood samples were collected consecutively to describe the pharmacokinetics of rFVIIa. All samples were analysed using three different assays: a clot assay to measure the activity (FVIIa:C), an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure the antigen levels (FVII:Ag), and a EIA (FVIIa-AT) to measure the FVIIa antithrombin III (AT) complex. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated both by use of standard non-compartmental methods and by use of mixed effects methods. A population pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all three datasets. The total body clearance of rFVIIa:C was estimated to be 38 mL/h/kg. The rFVII:AT complex formation was responsible for 65% of the total rFVIIa:C clearance. The initial and the terminal half-life of rFVIIa:C was estimated to be 0.6 and 2.6 hours, respectively. The formation of rFVII-AT complex were able to explain the difference observed between the rFVIIa:C and the rFVII:Ag concentration. The non-compartmental analysis resulted in almost identical parameters.
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