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Sökning: WFRF:(Brosius Juergen)

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1.
  • Suh, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple Lineages of Ancient CR1 Retroposons Shaped the Early Genome Evolution of Amniotes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - 1759-6653 .- 1759-6653. ; 7:1, s. 205-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retroposons are long interspersed elements (LINEs) that are ubiquitous within amniote genomes and constitute the most abundant family of transposed elements in birds, crocodilians, turtles, and snakes. They are also present in mammalian genomes, where they reside as numerous relics of ancient retroposition events. Yet, despite their relevance for understanding amniote genome evolution, the diversity and evolution of CR1 elements has never been studied on an amniote-wide level. We reconstruct the temporal and quantitative activity of CR1 subfamilies via presence/absence analyses across crocodilian phylogeny and comparative analyses of 12 crocodilian genomes, revealing relative genomic stasis of retroposition during genome evolution of extant Crocodylia. Our large-scale phylogenetic analysis of amniote CR1 subfamilies suggests the presence of at least seven ancient CR1 lineages in the amniote ancestor; and amniote-wide analyses of CR1 successions and quantities reveal differential retention (presence of ancient relics or recent activity) of these CR1 lineages across amniote genome evolution. Interestingly, birds and lepidosaurs retained the fewest ancient CR1 lineages among amniotes and also exhibit smaller genome sizes. Our study is the first to analyze CR1 evolution in a genome-wide and amniote-wide context and the data strongly suggest that the ancestral amniote genome contained myriad CR1 elements from multiple ancient lineages, and remnants of these are still detectable in the relatively stable genomes of crocodilians and turtles. Early mammalian genome evolution was thus characterized by a drastic shift from CR1 prevalence to dominance and hyperactivity of L2 LINEs in monotremes and L1 LINEs in therians.
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2.
  • Suh, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of a Mesozoic paleovirus reveals the evolution of hepatitis B viruses
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 4, s. 1791-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Paleovirology involves the identification of ancient endogenous viral elements within eukaryotic genomes. The evolutionary origins of the reverse-transcribing hepatitis B viruses, however, remain elusive, due to the small number of endogenized sequences present in host genomes. Here we report a comprehensively dated genomic record of hepatitis B virus endogenizations that spans bird evolution from > 82 to < 12.1 million years ago. The oldest virus relic extends over a 99% complete hepatitis B virus genome sequence and constitutes the first discovery of a Mesozoic paleovirus genome. We show that Hepadnaviridae are 463 million years older than previously known and provide direct evidence for coexistence of hepatitis B viruses and birds during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. Finally, phylogenetic analyses and distribution of hepatitis B virus relics suggest that birds potentially are the ancestral hosts of Hepadnaviridae and mammalian hepatitis B viruses probably emerged after a bird-mammal host switch. Our study reveals previously undiscovered and multi-faceted insights into prehistoric hepatitis B virus evolution and provides valuable resources for future studies, such as in-vitro resurrection of Mesozoic hepadnaviruses.
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3.
  • Skryabin, Boris, V, et al. (författare)
  • Pervasive head-to-tail insertions of DNA templates mask desired CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing events
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 6:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CRISPR-Cas9-mediated homology-directed DNA repair is the method of choice for precise gene editing in a wide range of model organisms, including mouse and human. Broad use by the biomedical community refined the method, making it more efficient and sequence specific. Nevertheless, the rapidly evolving technique still contains pitfalls. During the generation of six different conditional knockout mouse models, we discovered that frequently (sometimes solely) homology-directed repair and/or nonhomologous end joining mechanisms caused multiple unwanted head-to-tail insertions of donor DNA templates. Disturbingly, conventionally applied PCR analysis, in most cases, failed to identify these multiple integration events, which led to a high rate of falsely claimed precisely edited alleles. We caution that comprehensive analysis of modified alleles is essential and offer practical solutions to correctly identify precisely edited chromosomes.
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