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  • Romanelli, F., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 55:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the installation of an ITER-like wall, the JET programme has focused on the consolidation of ITER design choices and the preparation for ITER operation, with a specific emphasis given to the bulk tungsten melt experiment, which has been crucial for the final decision on the material choice for the day-one tungsten divertor in ITER. Integrated scenarios have been progressed with the re-establishment of long-pulse, high-confinement H-modes by optimizing the magnetic configuration and the use of ICRH to avoid tungsten impurity accumulation. Stationary discharges with detached divertor conditions and small edge localized modes have been demonstrated by nitrogen seeding. The differences in confinement and pedestal behaviour before and after the ITER-like wall installation have been better characterized towards the development of high fusion yield scenarios in DT. Post-mortem analyses of the plasma-facing components have confirmed the previously reported low fuel retention obtained by gas balance and shown that the pattern of deposition within the divertor has changed significantly with respect to the JET carbon wall campaigns due to the absence of thermally activated chemical erosion of beryllium in contrast to carbon. Transport to remote areas is almost absent and two orders of magnitude less material is found in the divertor.
  • Lituadon, Xavier, et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results in support to ITER
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 2014-2016 JET results are reviewed in the light of their significance for optimising the ITER research plan for the active and non-active operation. More than 60 h of plasma operation with ITER first wall materials successfully took place since its installation in 2011. New multi-machine scaling of the type I-ELM divertor energy flux density to ITER is supported by first principle modelling. ITER relevant disruption experiments and first principle modelling are reported with a set of three disruption mitigation valves mimicking the ITER setup. Insights of the L-H power threshold in Deuterium and Hydrogen are given, stressing the importance of the magnetic configurations and the recent measurements of fine-scale structures in the edge radial electric. Dimensionless scans of the core and pedestal confinement provide new information to elucidate the importance of the first wall material on the fusion performance. H-mode plasmas at ITER triangularity (H = 1 at beta(N) similar to 1.8 and n/n(GW) similar to 0.6) have been sustained at 2 MA during 5 s. The ITER neutronics codes have been validated on high performance experiments. Prospects for the coming D-T campaign and 14 MeV neutron calibration strategy are reviewed.
  • Ederle, Joerg, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier Limited. - 1474-547X. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
  • Feroci, M., et al. (författare)
  • The large observatory for x-ray timing
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. - 9780819496126
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) was studied within ESA M3 Cosmic Vision framework and participated in the final downselection for a launch slot in 2022-2024. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument, LOFT will study the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions, such as the strong gravitational field in the innermost regions of accretion flows close to black holes and neutron stars, and the supranuclear densities in the interior of neutron stars. The science payload is based on a Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area, 2-30 keV, 240 eV spectral resolution, 1° collimated field of view) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM, 2-50 keV, 4 steradian field of view, 1 arcmin source location accuracy, 300 eV spectral resolution). The WFM is equipped with an on-board system for bright events (e.g. GRB) localization. The trigger time and position of these events are broadcast to the ground within 30 s from discovery. In this paper we present the status of the mission at the end of its Phase A study.
  • Joffrin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Limits on anomalous trilinear gauge boson couplings from WW, WZ and Wγ production in pp- collisions at √s=1.96TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 718:2, s. 451-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present searches for the anomalous γWW and ZWW trilinear gauge boson couplings from WW and WZ production using lepton plus dijet final states and a combination with results from Wγ, WW, and WZ production with leptonic final states. The analyzed data correspond to up to 8.6fb -1 of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 detector in pp- collisions at s=1.96TeV. We set the most stringent limits at a hadron collider to date assuming two different relations between the anomalous coupling parameters δκ γ, λ, and δg1Z for a cutoff energy scale Λ=2TeV. The combined 68% C.L. limits are -0.057<δκ γ<0.154, -0.015<λ<0.028, and -0.008<δg1Z<0.054 for the LEP parameterization, and -0.007<δκ<0.081 and -0.017<λ<0.028 for the equal couplings parameterization. We also present the most stringent limits of the W boson magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the p(p)over-bar -> W plus b plus X production cross section at root s=1.96 TeV D0 Collaboration
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 718:4-5, s. 1314-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the cross section for W boson production in association with at least one b-quark jet in proton-antiproton collisions. The measurement is made using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.1fb-1 recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp̄ Collider at s=1.96TeV. We measure an inclusive cross section of σ(W(→μν)+b+X)=1.04±0.05(stat.)±0.12(syst.) pb and σ(W(→eν)+b+X)=1.00±0.04(stat.)±0.12(syst.) pb in the phase space defined by pTν>25GeV, pTb-jet>20 GeV, |ηb-jet|<1.1, and a muon (electron) with pTℓ>20 GeV and |ημ|<1.7 (|ηe|<1.1 or 1.5<|ηe|<2.5). The combined result per lepton family is σ(W(→ℓν)+b+X)=1.05±0.12(stat.+syst.) pb for |ηℓ|<1.7. The results are in agreement with predictions from next-to-leading order QCD calculations using mcfm, σ(W+b){dot operator}B(W→ℓν)=1.34-0.34+0.41(syst.) pb, and also with predictions from the sherpa and madgraph Monte Carlo event generators.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the combined rapidity and p(T) dependence of dijet azimuthal decorrelations in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 721:4-5, s. 212-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first combined measurement of the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of dijet azimuthal decorrelations, using the recently proposed quantity R-Delta phi. The variable R-Delta phi measures the fraction of the inclusive dijet events in which the azimuthal separation of the two jets with the highest transverse momenta is less than a specified value of the parameter Delta phi(max). The quantity R-Delta phi is measured in p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV, as a function of the dijet rapidity interval, the total scalar transverse momentum, and Delta phi(max). The measurement uses an event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb(-1) collected with the DO detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The results are compared to predictions of a perturbative QCD calculation at next-to-leading order in the strong coupling with corrections for non-perturbative effects. The theory predictions describe the data well, except in the kinematic region of large dijet rapidity intervals and small Delta phi(max).
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections sigma(p(p)over-bar -> Z + b jet)/sigma(p(p)over-bar -> Z + jet) in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 87:9, s. 092010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We measure the ratio of cross sections, sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + b jet)/sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest p(T) b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab's Tevatron p (p) over bar Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb(-1). The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the ratio of three-jet to two-jet cross sections in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 720:1-3, s. 6-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the ratio of multijet cross sections in p (p) over barp collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement is based on a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb(-1) collected with the DO detector. The ratio of the inclusive three-jet to two-jet cross sections, R-3/2, has been measured as a function of the jet transverse momenta. The data are compared to QCD predictions in different approximations. Popular tunes of the PYriiiA event generator do not agree with the data, while SHERPA provides a reasonable description of the data. A perturbative QCD prediction in next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant, corrected for non-perturbative effects, gives a good description of the data.
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