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Sökning: WFRF:(Brunak Soren)

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1.
  • Carlevaro-Fita, Joana, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer LncRNA Census reveals evidence for deep functional conservation of long noncoding RNAs in tumorigenesis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2399-3642. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Joana Carlevaro-Fita, Andres Lanzos et al. present the Cancer LncRNA Census (CLC), a manually curated dataset of 122 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with experimentally-validated functions in cancer based on data from the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium. CLC lncRNAs have unique gene features, and a number display evidence for cancer-driving functions that are conserved from humans to mice. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a growing focus of cancer genomics studies, creating the need for a resource of lncRNAs with validated cancer roles. Furthermore, it remains debated whether mutated lncRNAs can drive tumorigenesis, and whether such functions could be conserved during evolution. Here, as part of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium, we introduce the Cancer LncRNA Census (CLC), a compilation of 122 GENCODE lncRNAs with causal roles in cancer phenotypes. In contrast to existing databases, CLC requires strong functional or genetic evidence. CLC genes are enriched amongst driver genes predicted from somatic mutations, and display characteristic genomic features. Strikingly, CLC genes are enriched for driver mutations from unbiased, genome-wide transposon-mutagenesis screens in mice. We identified 10 tumour-causing mutations in orthologues of 8 lncRNAs, including LINC-PINT and NEAT1, but not MALAT1. Thus CLC represents a dataset of high-confidence cancer lncRNAs. Mutagenesis maps are a novel means for identifying deeply-conserved roles of lncRNAs in tumorigenesis.
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2.
  • Dalgaard, Marlene D., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study of men with symptoms of testicular dysgenesis syndrome and its network biology interpretation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 49:1, s. 58-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is a common disease that links testicular germ cell cancer, cryptorchidism and some cases of hypospadias and male infertility with impaired development of the testis. The incidence of these disorders has increased over the last few decades, and testicular cancer now affects 1% of the Danish and Norwegian male population. Methods To identify genetic variants that span the four TDS phenotypes, the authors performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 to screen 488 patients with symptoms of TDS and 439 selected controls with excellent reproductive health. Furthermore, they developed a novel integrative method that combines GWAS data with other TDS-relevant data types and identified additional TDS markers. The most significant findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 671 Nordic men. Results Markers located in the region of TGFBR3 and BMP7 showed association with all TDS phenotypes in both the discovery and replication cohorts. An immunohistochemistry investigation confirmed the presence of transforming growth factor beta receptor type III (TGFBR3) in peritubular and Leydig cells, in both fetal and adult testis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene showed significant associations, but only with testicular cancer. Conclusions The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TGFBR3 and BMP7 genes, which belong to the transforming growth factor b signalling pathway, suggests a role for this pathway in the pathogenesis of TDS. Integrating data from multiple layers can highlight findings in GWAS that are biologically relevant despite having border significance at currently accepted statistical levels.
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3.
  • Gudmundsdottir, Valborg, et al. (författare)
  • Whole blood co-expression modules associate with metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes : an IMI-DIRECT study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1756-994X .- 1756-994X. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) poses a major global challenge. It remains unresolved to what extent transcriptomic signatures of metabolic dysregulation and T2D can be observed in easily accessible tissues such as blood. Additionally, large-scale human studies are required to further our understanding of the putative inflammatory component of insulin resistance and T2D. Here we used transcriptomics data from individuals with (n = 789) and without (n = 2127) T2D from the IMI-DIRECT cohorts to describe the co-expression structure of whole blood that mainly reflects processes and cell types of the immune system, and how it relates to metabolically relevant clinical traits and T2D.Methods: Clusters of co-expressed genes were identified in the non-diabetic IMI-DIRECT cohort and evaluated with regard to stability, as well as preservation and rewiring in the cohort of individuals with T2D. We performed functional and immune cell signature enrichment analyses, and a genome-wide association study to describe the genetic regulation of the modules. Phenotypic and trans-omics associations of the transcriptomic modules were investigated across both IMI-DIRECT cohorts.Results: We identified 55 whole blood co-expression modules, some of which clustered in larger super-modules. We identified a large number of associations between these transcriptomic modules and measures of insulin action and glucose tolerance. Some of the metabolically linked modules reflect neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in blood while others are independent of white blood cell estimates, including a module of genes encoding neutrophil granule proteins with antibacterial properties for which the strongest associations with clinical traits and T2D status were observed. Through the integration of genetic and multi-omics data, we provide a holistic view of the regulation and molecular context of whole blood transcriptomic modules. We furthermore identified an overlap between genetic signals for T2D and co-expression modules involved in type II interferon signaling.Conclusions: Our results offer a large-scale map of whole blood transcriptomic modules in the context of metabolic disease and point to novel biological candidates for future studies related to T2D.
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4.
  • Jia, Gengjie, et al. (författare)
  • Estimating heritability and genetic correlations from large health datasets in the absence of genetic data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Typically, estimating genetic parameters, such as disease heritability and between-disease genetic correlations, demands large datasets containing all relevant phenotypic measures and detailed knowledge of family relationships or, alternatively, genotypic and phenotypic data for numerous unrelated individuals. Here, we suggest an alternative, efficient estimation approach through the construction of two disease metrics from large health datasets: temporal disease prevalence curves and low-dimensional disease embeddings. We present eleven thousand heritability estimates corresponding to five study types: twins, traditional family studies, health records-based family studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and polygenic risk scores. We also compute over six hundred thousand estimates of genetic, environmental and phenotypic correlations. Furthermore, we find that: (1) disease curve shapes cluster into five general patterns; (2) early-onset diseases tend to have lower prevalence than late-onset diseases (Spearmans rho = 0.32, p amp;lt; 10(-16)); and (3) the disease onset age and heritability are negatively correlated (rho = -0.46, p amp;lt; 10(-16)).
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5.
  • Jorgensen, Jesper Roland, et al. (författare)
  • Cometin is a novel neurotrophic factor that promotes neurite outgrowth and neuroblast migration in vitro and supports survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vivo
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 0014-4886 .- 1090-2430. ; 233:1, s. 172-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurotrophic factors are secreted proteins responsible for migration, growth and survival of neurons during development, and for maintenance and plasticity of adult neurons. Here we present a novel secreted protein named Cometin which together with Meteorin defines a new evolutionary conserved protein family. During early mouse development, Cometin is found exclusively in the floor plate and from E13.5 also in dorsal root ganglions and inner ear but apparently not in the adult nervous system. In vitro, Cometin promotes neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion cells which can be blocked by inhibition of the Janus or MEK kinases. In this assay, additive effects of Cometin and Meteorin are observed indicating separate receptors. Furthermore, Cometin supports migration of neuroblasts from subventricular zone explants to the same extend as stromal cell derived factor la. Given the neurotrophic properties in vitro, combined with the restricted inner ear expression during development, we further investigated Cometin in relation to deafness. In neomycin deafened guinea pigs, two weeks intracochlear infusion of recombinant Cometin supports spiral ganglion neuron survival and function. In contrast to the control group receiving artificial perilymph, Cometin treated animals retain normal electrically-evoked brainstem response which is maintained several weeks after treatment cessation. Neuroprotection is also evident from stereological analysis of the spiral ganglion. Altogether, these studies show that Cometin is a potent new neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Koivula, Robert W., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes : rationale and design of the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 57:6, s. 1132-1142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The DIRECT (Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification) Study is part of a European Union Framework 7 Innovative Medicines Initiative project, a joint undertaking between four industry and 21 academic partners throughout Europe. The Consortium aims to discover and validate biomarkers that: (1) predict the rate of glycaemic deterioration before and after type 2 diabetes onset; (2) predict the response to diabetes therapies; and (3) help stratify type 2 diabetes into clearly definable disease subclasses that can be treated more effectively than without stratification. This paper describes two new prospective cohort studies conducted as part of DIRECT.METHODS:Prediabetic participants (target sample size 2,200-2,700) and patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (target sample size ~1,000) are undergoing detailed metabolic phenotyping at baseline and 18 months and 36 months later. Abdominal, pancreatic and liver fat is assessed using MRI. Insulin secretion and action are assessed using frequently sampled OGTTs in non-diabetic participants, and frequently sampled mixed-meal tolerance tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. Biosamples include venous blood, faeces, urine and nail clippings, which, among other biochemical analyses, will be characterised at genetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, proteomic and metagenomic levels. Lifestyle is assessed using high-resolution triaxial accelerometry, 24 h diet record, and food habit questionnaires.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:DIRECT will yield an unprecedented array of biomaterials and data. This resource, available through managed access to scientists within and outside the Consortium, will facilitate the development of new treatments and therapeutic strategies for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes
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7.
  • Koivula, Robert W., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes : descriptive characteristics of the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 62:9, s. 1601-1615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Here, we describe the characteristics of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) epidemiological cohorts at baseline and follow-up examinations (18, 36 and 48 months of follow-up).Methods: From a sampling frame of 24,682 adults of European ancestry enrolled in population-based cohorts across Europe, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm (based on age, BMI, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status and parental history of type 2 diabetes) and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n = 2127) (cohort 1, prediabetes risk). We also recruited people from clinical registries with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 6-24 months previously (n = 789) into a second cohort study (cohort 2, diabetes). Follow-up examinations took place at similar to 18 months (both cohorts) and at similar to 48 months (cohort 1) or similar to 36 months (cohort 2) after baseline examinations. The cohorts were studied in parallel using matched protocols across seven clinical centres in northern Europe.Results: Using ADA 2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n = 693) of cohort 1 (prediabetes risk) had normal glucose regulation and 67% (n = 1419) had impaired glucose regulation. Seventy-six per cent of participants in cohort 1 was male. Cohort 1 participants had the following characteristics (mean +/- SD) at baseline: age 62 (6.2) years; BMI 27.9 (4.0) kg/m(2); fasting glucose 5.7 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 5.9 (1.6) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 6.0 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h OGTT glucose 6.5 (2.0) mmol/l. In cohort 2 (diabetes), 66% (n = 517) were treated by lifestyle modification and 34% (n = 272) were treated with metformin plus lifestyle modification at enrolment. Fifty-eight per cent of participants in cohort 2 was male. Cohort 2 participants had the following characteristics at baseline: age 62 (8.1) years; BMI 30.5 (5.0) kg/m(2); fasting glucose 7.2 (1.4) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 8.6 (2.8) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination, the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 7.9 (2.0) mmol/l; 2 h mixed-meal tolerance test glucose 9.9 (3.4) mmol/l.Conclusions/interpretation: The IMI DIRECT cohorts are intensely characterised, with a wide-variety of metabolically relevant measures assessed prospectively. We anticipate that the cohorts, made available through managed access, will provide a powerful resource for biomarker discovery, multivariate aetiological analyses and reclassification of patients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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8.
  • Rheinbay, Esther, et al. (författare)
  • Analyses of non-coding somatic drivers in 2,658 cancer whole genomes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 578:7793, s. 102-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of drivers of cancer has traditionally focused on protein-coding genes(1-4). Here we present analyses of driver point mutations and structural variants in non-coding regions across 2,658 genomes from the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium(5) of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). For point mutations, we developed a statistically rigorous strategy for combining significance levels from multiple methods of driver discovery that overcomes the limitations of individual methods. For structural variants, we present two methods of driver discovery, and identify regions that are significantly affected by recurrent breakpoints and recurrent somatic juxtapositions. Our analyses confirm previously reported drivers(6,7), raise doubts about others and identify novel candidates, including point mutations in the 5' region of TP53, in the 3' untranslated regions of NFKBIZ and TOB1, focal deletions in BRD4 and rearrangements in the loci of AKR1C genes. We show that although point mutations and structural variants that drive cancer are less frequent in non-coding genes and regulatory sequences than in protein-coding genes, additional examples of these drivers will be found as more cancer genomes become available.
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9.
  • Bergholdt, Regine, et al. (författare)
  • Integrative analysis for finding genes and networks involved in diabetes and other complex diseases
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1474-7596. ; 8:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have developed an integrative analysis method combining genetic interactions, identified using type l diabetes genome scan data, and a high-confidence human protein interaction network. Resulting networks were ranked by the significance of the enrichment of proteins from interacting regions. We identified a number of new protein network modules and novel candidate genes/ proteins for type 1 diabetes. We propose this type of integrative analysis as a general method for the elucidation of genes and networks involved in diabetes and other complex diseases.
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10.
  • Bizzotto, Roberto, et al. (författare)
  • Processes Underlying Glycemic Deterioration in Type 2 Diabetes : An IMI DIRECT Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548 .- 0149-5992. ; 44:2, s. 511-518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We investigated the processes underlying glycemic deterioration in type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 732 recently diagnosed patients with T2D from the Innovative Medicines Initiative Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (IMI DIRECT) study were extensively phenotyped over 3 years, including measures of insulin sensitivity (OGIS), β-cell glucose sensitivity (GS), and insulin clearance (CLIm) from mixed meal tests, liver enzymes, lipid profiles, and baseline regional fat from MRI. The associations between the longitudinal metabolic patterns and HbA1c deterioration, adjusted for changes in BMI and in diabetes medications, were assessed via stepwise multivariable linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: Faster HbA1c progression was independently associated with faster deterioration of OGIS and GS and increasing CLIm; visceral or liver fat, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides had further independent, though weaker, roles (R2 = 0.38). A subgroup of patients with a markedly higher progression rate (fast progressors) was clearly distinguishable considering these variables only (discrimination capacity from area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.94). The proportion of fast progressors was reduced from 56% to 8-10% in subgroups in which only one trait among OGIS, GS, and CLIm was relatively stable (odds ratios 0.07-0.09). T2D polygenic risk score and baseline pancreatic fat, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, diet, and physical activity did not show an independent role. CONCLUSIONS: Deteriorating insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, increasing insulin clearance, high visceral or liver fat, and worsening of the lipid profile are the crucial factors mediating glycemic deterioration of patients with T2D in the initial phase of the disease. Stabilization of a single trait among insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and insulin clearance may be relevant to prevent progression.
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