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1.
  • Ventorp, Filip, et al. (författare)
  • The CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of suicide attempters and is associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - Elsevier. - 1573-2517. ; 193, s. 349-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA) is an important component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain. CD44 is a cell adhesion molecule that binds to HA in the ECM and is present on astrocytes, microglia and certain neurons. Cell adhesion molecules have been reported to be involved in anxiety and mood disorders. CD44 levels are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of depressed individuals, and the CD44 gene has been identified in brain GWAS studies as a possible risk gene for suicidal behavior.
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3.
  • Burguillos Garcia, Miguel, et al. (författare)
  • Caspase signalling controls microglia activation and neurotoxicity.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 472, s. 214-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activation of microglia and inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity are suggested to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Activated microglia release pro-inflammatory factors that may be neurotoxic. Here we show that the orderly activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7, known executioners of apoptotic cell death, regulate microglia activation through a protein kinase C (PKC)-δ-dependent pathway. We find that stimulation of microglia with various inflammogens activates caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 in microglia without triggering cell death in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown or chemical inhibition of each of these caspases hindered microglia activation and consequently reduced neurotoxicity. We observe that these caspases are activated in microglia in the ventral mesencephalon of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the frontal cortex of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Taken together, we show that caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 are involved in regulating microglia activation. We conclude that inhibition of these caspases could be neuroprotective by targeting the microglia rather than the neurons themselves.
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4.
  • Christophersen, Nicolaj, et al. (författare)
  • Induction of dopaminergic neurons from growth factor expanded neural stem/progenitor cell cultures derived from human first trimester forebrain.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Brain Research Bulletin. - Elsevier. - 0361-9230. ; 70:4-6, s. 457-466
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multipotent stem/progenitor cells derived from human first trimester forebrain can be expanded as free-floating aggregates, so called neurospheres. These cells can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In vitro differentiation protocols normally yield γ-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive neurons, whereas only few tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressing neurons are found. The present report describes conditions under which 4–10% of the cells in the culture become TH immunoreactive (ir) neurons within 24 h. Factors including acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in combination with agents that increase intracellular cyclic AMP and activate protein kinase C, in addition to a substrate that promotes neuronal differentiation appear critical for efficient TH induction. The cells remain THir after trypsinization and replating, even when their subsequent culturing takes place in the absence of inducing factors. Consistent with a dopaminergic phenotype, mRNAs encoding aromatic acid decarboxylase, but not dopamine-β-hydroxylase were detected by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Ten weeks after the cells had been grafted into the striatum of adult rats with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions, only very few of the surviving human neurons expressed TH. Our data suggest that a significant proportion of expandable human neural progenitors can differentiate into TH-expressing cells in vitro and that they could be useful for drug and gene discovery. Additional experiments, however, are required to improve the survival and phenotypic stability of these cells before they can be considered useful for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease.
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5.
  • George, Sonia, et al. (författare)
  • Lesion of the subiculum reduces the spread of amyloid beta pathology to interconnected brain regions in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 2051-5960. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The progressive development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology follows a spatiotemporal pattern in the human brain. In a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the arctic (E693G) mutation, pathology spreads along anatomically connected structures. Amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology first appears in the subiculum and is later detected in interconnected brain regions, including the retrosplenial cortex. We investigated whether the spatiotemporal pattern of Aβ pathology in the Tg APP arctic mice to interconnected brain structures can be interrupted by destroying neurons using a neurotoxin and thereby disconnecting the neural circuitry.
6.
  • Killinger, Bryan A., et al. (författare)
  • The vermiform appendix impacts the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1946-6234. ; 10:465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves the accumulation of aggregated -synuclein, which has been suggested to begin in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we determined the capacity of the appendix to modify PD risk and influence pathogenesis. In two independent epidemiological datasets, involving more than 1.6 million individuals and over 91 million person-years, we observed that removal of the appendix decades before PD onset was associated with a lower risk for PD, particularly for individuals living in rural areas, and delayed the age of PD onset. We also found that the healthy human appendix contained intraneuronal -synuclein aggregates and an abundance of PD pathology–associated -synuclein truncation products that are known to accumulate in Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of PD. Lysates of human appendix tissue induced the rapid cleavage and oligo-merization of full-length recombinant -synuclein. Together, we propose that the normal human appendix contains pathogenic forms of -synuclein that affect the risk of developing PD.
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7.
  • Maynard, Christa J., et al. (författare)
  • Accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates in a polyglutamine disease model occurs without global ubiquitin/proteasome system impairment
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 106:33, s. 13986-13991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aggregation-prone proteins have been suggested to overwhelm and impair the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD). Overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin (N-mutHtt), an aggregation-prone polyQ protein responsible for HD, obstructs the UPS in cellular models. Furthermore, based on the accumulation of polyubiquitin conjugates in brains of R6/2 mice, which express human N-mutHtt and are one of the most severe polyQ disorder models, it has been proposed that UPS dysfunction is a consistent feature of this pathology, occurring in both in vitro and in vivo models. Here, we have exploited transgenic mice that ubiquitously express a ubiquitin fusion degradation proteasome substrate to directly assess the functionality of the UPS in R6/2 mice or the slower onset R6/1 mice. Although expression of N-mutHtt caused a general inhibition of the UPS in PC12 cells, we did not observe an increase in the levels of proteasome reporter substrate in the brains of R6/2 and R6/1 mice. We show that the increase in ubiquitin conjugates in R6/2 mice can be primarily attributed to an accumulation of large ubiquitin conjugates that are different from the conjugates observed upon UPS inhibition. Together our data show that polyubiquitylated proteins accumulate in R6/2 brain despite a largely operative UPS, and suggest that neurons are able to avoid or compensate for the inhibitory effects of N-mutHtt.
8.
  • Paul-Visse, Gesine, et al. (författare)
  • The adult human brain harbors multipotent perivascular mesenchymal stem cells.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 7:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood vessels and adjacent cells form perivascular stem cell niches in adult tissues. In this perivascular niche, a stem cell with mesenchymal characteristics was recently identified in some adult somatic tissues. These cells are pericytes that line the microvasculature, express mesenchymal markers and differentiate into mesodermal lineages but might even have the capacity to generate tissue-specific cell types. Here, we isolated, purified and characterized a previously unrecognized progenitor population from two different regions in the adult human brain, the ventricular wall and the neocortex. We show that these cells co-express markers for mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes in vivo and in vitro, but do not express glial, neuronal progenitor, hematopoietic, endothelial or microglial markers in their native state. Furthermore, we demonstrate at a clonal level that these progenitors have true multilineage potential towards both, the mesodermal and neuroectodermal phenotype. They can be epigenetically induced in vitro into adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts but also into glial cells and immature neurons. This progenitor population exhibits long-term proliferation, karyotype stability and retention of phenotype and multipotency following extensive propagation. Thus, we provide evidence that the vascular niche in the adult human brain harbors a novel progenitor with multilineage capacity that appears to represent mesenchymal stem cells and is different from any previously described human neural stem cell. Future studies will elucidate whether these cells may play a role for disease or may represent a reservoir that can be exploited in efforts to repair the diseased human brain.
9.
  • Smith, Ruben, et al. (författare)
  • Mutant huntingtin interacts with {beta}-tubulin and disrupts vesicular transport and insulin secretion.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 18:20, s. 3942-3954
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Huntington's disease is a severe progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG-expansion in the IT15 gene, which encodes huntingtin. The disease primarily affects the neostriatum and cerebral cortex and also associates with increased incidence of diabetes. Here, we show that mutant huntingtin disrupts intracellular transport and insulin secretion by direct interference with microtubular beta-tubulin. We demonstrate that mutant huntingtin impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in insulin-producing beta-cells, without altering stored levels of insulin. Using VSVG-YFP, we show that mutant huntingtin retards post-Golgi transport. Moreover, we demonstrate that the speed of insulin vesicle trafficking is reduced. Using immunoprecipitation of mutant and wild-type huntingtin in combination with mass spectrometry, we reveal an enhanced and aberrant interaction between mutant huntingtin and beta-tubulin, implying the underlying mechanism of impaired intracellular transport. Thus, our findings have revealed a novel pathogenetic process by which mutant huntingtin may disrupt hormone exocytosis from beta-cells and possibly impair vesicular transport in any cell that expresses the pathogenic protein.
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10.
  • Ventorp, Filip, et al. (författare)
  • Exendin-4 treatment improves LPS-induced depressive-like behavior without affecting pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - IOS Press. - 1877-7171. ; 7:2, s. 263-273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Exendin-4 is a peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, currently in clinical trials as a potential disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease. In light of this, it is important to understand potential modes of action of exendin-4 in the brain. Exendin-4 is neuroprotective and has been proposed to be directly anti-inflammatory, and that this is one way it reduces neurodegeneration. However, prior studies have focused on animal models involving both neurodegeneration and inflammation, therefore, it is also possible that the observed decreased inflammation is secondary to reduced neurodegeneration. Objective: To investigate whether exendin-4 directly reduces inflammation in the brain following an insult that involves neuroinflammation but not neurodegeneration, namely systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: Rats were administered LPS systemically and were treated with either 0.5 g/kg exendin-4 or saline vehicle injections over 5 days. Behavior was evaluated with forced swim test. We assayed TNF-and IL-1 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and cytokine mRNA expression in striatal, hippocampal and cortical tissues using qPCR.We determined brain monoamines using high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally,we isolated primary brain microglia from rats and measured cytokine production after exendin-4 treatment and LPS stimulation. Results: Exendin-4 treatment did not affect cytokine mRNA expression in brain, cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid or cytokine production from cultured microglia, although there was a trend towards increased striatal dopamine. Importantly, exendin-4 significantly prevented depressive-like behavior at 24 hours after LPS injection, indicating that the drug engaged a target in the brain. Depressive-like behavior was associated with altered dopamine turnover in the striatum. Conclusion: We did not detect any anti-inflammatory effects of exendin-4. In previous studies exploring the effects of exendin-4 on brain insults involving neurodegeneration, observations of reduced inflammation might have been secondary to mitigation of neuronal death. Our results indicate that the effects of exendin-4 on behavior may be due to effects on dopamine synthesis or metabolism.
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