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Sökning: WFRF:(Brus Ole)

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1.
  • Brus, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Subjective Memory Immediately Following Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of ECT. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1095-0680. ; 33:2, s. 96-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aims of the present study were to describe the short-term rate of subjective memory worsening (SMW) and identify factors of importance for SMW in a large clinical sample treated for depression with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).Methods: This register-based study included 1212 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Subjective memory worsening was defined as a 2-point worsening on the memory item of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale from before to within 1 week after treatment. Associations between patient characteristics and treatment factors were examined using logistic regression.Results: Subjective memory worsening was experienced in 26%. It was more common in women than in men (31% vs 18%; P < 0.001) and more common in patients aged 18 to 39 years than in patients 65 years or older (32% vs 22%; P = 0.008). Patients with less subjective memory disturbances before ECT had a greater risk of SMW. Patients in remission after ECT had a lower risk of SMW. A brief pulse width stimulus gave higher risk of SMW compared with ultrabrief pulse (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.47).Conclusions: Subjective memory worsening is reported by a minority of patients. However, young women are at risk of experiencing SMW. Ultrabrief pulse width stimulus could be considered for patients treated with unilateral electrode placement who experience SMW. Each patient should be monitored with regard to symptoms and adverse effects, and treatment should be adjusted on an individual basis to maximize the clinical effect and with efforts to minimize the cognitive adverse effects.
2.
  • Ahlberg, Rickard, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Auricular acupuncture for substance use a randomized controlled trial of effects on anxiety, sleep, drug use and use of addiction treatment services
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. - London, United Kingdom : BioMed Central. - 1747-597X. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A common alternative treatment for substance abuse is auricular acupuncture. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and long-term effect of auricular acupuncture on anxiety, sleep, drug use and addiction treatment utilization in adults with substance abuse.Method: Of the patients included, 280 adults with substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity, 80 were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture according to the NADA protocol, 80 to auricular acupuncture according to a local protocol (LP), and 120 to relaxation (controls). The primary outcomes anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI) and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) were measured at baseline and at follow-ups 5 weeks and 3 months after the baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes were drug use and addiction service utilization. Complete datasets regarding BAI/ISI were obtained from 37/34 subjects in the NADA group, 28/28 in the LP group and 36/35 controls. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Analysis of Variance, Kruskal Wallis, Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, Eta square (η(2)), and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests.Results: Participants in NADA, LP and control group improved significantly on the ISI and BAI. There was no significant difference in change over time between the three groups in any of the primary (effect size: BAI, η(2) = 0.03, ISI, η(2) = 0.05) or secondary outcomes. Neither of the two acupuncture treatments resulted in differences in sleep, anxiety or drug use from the control group at 5 weeks or 3 months.Conclusion: No evidence was found that acupuncture as delivered in this study is more effective than relaxation for problems with anxiety, sleep or substance use or in reducing the need for further addiction treatment in patients with substance use problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The substantial attrition at follow-up is a main limitation of the study.Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT02604706 (retrospectively registered).
3.
  • Björk, Tabita, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Laterality, hand control and scholastic performance a British birth cohort study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - London, United Kingdom : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 2:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To use simple measures of laterality and hand control that can identify a greater risk of poorer scholastic ability, potentially signalling suboptimal hemispheric lateralisation.Design: Analysis of material from a birth cohort study.Setting: Members of the National Child Development Study, a British birth cohort study following people born in 1958.Participants: 10 612 children who undertook tests at age 11 years.Primary outcome measures: Teacher-administered tests of non-verbal general ability, verbal general ability, reading comprehension and mathematics.Results: Linear regression produced associations (and 95% CIs) with tests of verbal general ability, non-verbal general ability, reading comprehension and mathematics scores for the lowest third (compared with highest) of a left-hand control test involving picking up matches of -1.21 (-1.73 to -0.68; p<0.001), -0.72 (-1.14 to -0.29; p=0.001), -0.70 (-1.06 to -0.35; p<0.001) and -1.32 (-1.90 to -0.73; p<0.001). Among those in the lowest third of the right-hand control test score, mixed-handedness compared with right-handedness was associated with poorer scholastic performance, with regression coefficients (and 95% CIs; p values) of 1.90 (-3.01 to -0.80; p=0.001), -1.25 (-2.15 to -0.35; p=0.007), -1.28 (2.04 to -0.53; p=0.001) and -1.33 (-2.53 to -0.13; p=0.030). The estimates are for a point change in the scholastic test scores, after adjustment for sex, left-hand motor function and social class. Statistically significant associations with mixed-handedness were only observed for the lowest third of right-hand motor function.Conclusions: Measures involving poorer left-hand motor function may represent useful markers of reduced cognitive function possibly reflecting suboptimal hemispheric lateralisation. Crude measures of laterality such as reported non-right-handedness may be more useful for research when combined with measures of motor function.
4.
  • Brus, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Lithium for suicide and readmission prevention after electroconvulsive therapy for unipolar depression population-based register study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BJPsych Open. - Royal College of Psychiatrists. ; 5:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective for unipolar depression but relapse and suicide are significant challenges. Lithium could potentially lower these risks, but is used only in a minority of patients.AimsThis study quantifies the effect of lithium on risk of suicide and readmission and identifies factors that are associate with readmission and suicide.METHOD: This population-based register study used data from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT and other Swedish national registers. Patients who have received ECT for unipolar depression as in-patients between 2011 and 2016 were followed until death, readmission to hospital or the termination of the study at the end of 2016. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of readmission and suicide in adjusted models.RESULTS: Out of 7350 patients, 56 died by suicide and 4203 were readmitted. Lithium was prescribed to 638 (9%) patients. Mean follow-up was 1.4 years. Lithium was significantly associated with lower risk of suicide (P = 0.014) and readmission (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.75-0.93). The number needed to be treated with lithium to prevent one readmission was 16. In addition, the following factors were statistically associated with suicide: male gender, being a widow, substance use disorder and a history of suicide attempts. Readmission was associated with young age, being divorced or unemployed, comorbid anxiety disorder, nonpsychotic depression, more severe symptoms before ECT, no improvement with ECT, not receiving continuation ECT or antidepressants, usage of antipsychotics, anxiolytics or benzodiazepines, severity of medication resistance and number of previous admissions.CONCLUSIONS: More patients could benefit from lithium treatment.Declaration of interestNone.
5.
  • Eriksson, Carl, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, prevalence and clinical outcome of anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease a population-based cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. - Blackwell Science Ltd.. - 0269-2813. ; 48:6, s. 638-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence and short-term outcome of anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are largely unknown.AIM: To determine the incidence, prevalence and clinical outcome of anaemia in terms of resolution of anaemia within 12 months. We also planned to assess risk factors for anaemia in IBD.METHODS: A random sample of 342 patients was obtained from the population-based IBD cohort of Örebro University Hospital, Sweden, consisting of 1405 patients diagnosed between 1963 and 2010. Haemoglobin measurements recorded from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 were extracted from the Clinical Chemistry data system.RESULTS: In Crohn's disease, the incidence rate of anaemia was 19.3 (95% CI: 15.4-23.7) per 100 person-years and the prevalence was 28.7% (CI: 22.0-36.2), compared with 12.9 (CI: 9.8-16.5) and 16.5% (CI: 11.2-22.9) for ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease was associated with an increased incidence (OR = 1.60; CI: 1.02-2.51) and prevalence of anaemia (OR = 2.04; CI: 1.20-3.46) compared to ulcerative colitis. Stricturing disease phenotype in Crohn's disease (HR = 2.59; CI: 1.00-6.79) and extensive disease in ulcerative colitis (HR = 2.40; CI: 1.10-5.36) were associated with an increased risk of anaemia. Despite a higher probability of receiving specific therapy within 3 months from the diagnosis of anaemia, Crohn's disease patients had a worse outcome in terms of resolution of anaemia within 12 months (56% vs 75%; P = 0.03).CONCLUSIONS: Anaemia is a common manifestation of IBD even beyond the first years after the diagnosis of IBD. Crohn's disease is associated with both an increased risk and a worse outcome.
6.
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7.
  • Fischer, Per, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Revision Arthroplasty of the Wrist in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Mean Follow-Up 6.6 Years
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hand Surgery-American Volume. - Elsevier. - 0363-5023. ; 43:5, s. 489.e1-489.e7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Management of failed total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) can be challenging; surgical treatment options include salvage arthrodesis, revision arthroplasty, and resection arthroplasty. There are few studies regarding salvage arthrodesis, and revision arthroplasty has been infrequently investigated. The aim of the study was to report the outcome after revision arthroplasty of the wrist.METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 16 revision TWAs was evaluated between 2003 and 2016. Data were collected before surgery and 1 and 5 years after surgery. The indication for revision arthroplasty was failed TWA. The primary end point was implant survival. Secondary outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, range of motion, handgrip strength, and functional scoring with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH).RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 6.6 years. Synthetic bone graft was used in 9 cases, allograft corticocancellous bone graft in 1 case, and cement in 6 cases. Of the 16 revision TWAs, 4 were re-revised, 1 because of infection, and 3 cases underwent total wrist arthrodesis. In the non-re-revised cases, range of motion and grip strength was preserved compared with preoperative results. The VAS pain score in activity improved, but not significantly, at 1 (median, 1; range, 0-4.5) and 5 years after surgery (median, 0) compared with before surgery (median, 5). The COPM performance and satisfaction as well as PRWE scores improved significantly at 1 year (median COPM performance, 4.8; COPM satisfaction, 5.6; and PRWE, 24) and improved, but not significantly, at the 5-year follow (median COPM performance, 4.8; COPM satisfaction, 5.0; and PRWE, 37) in the non-re-revised cases.CONCLUSIONS: Revision arthroplasty of the wrist is a valid motion-preserving option to wrist arthrodesis in the management of failed TWA. However, the outcome is uncertain and as many as 25% require additional surgery.TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic IV.
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8.
  • Holm, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Improvement of cycloid psychosis following electroconvulsive therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0803-9488. ; 71:6, s. 405-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The treatment of choice for cycloid psychosis has traditionally been electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but there is a lack of studies on its effectiveness.Aims: The primary aim of this register study was to determine the rates of remission and response after ECT for cycloid psychosis. The secondary aim was to examine possible predictors of outcome.Methods: Data were obtained from the National Quality Register for ECT in Sweden. The study population was patients (n=42) who received ECT for acute polymorphic psychotic disorder without symptoms of schizophrenia or for cycloid psychosis between 2011-2015 in 13 hospitals. Remission and response rates were calculated using Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement scores, respectively. Variables with possible predictive value were tested using Chi-square and Fishers exact test.Results: The response rate was 90.5%. The remission rate was 45.2%. Of 42 patients, 40 improved their CGI-S score after ECT (pamp;lt;0.001). The mean number of ECT treatments was 2.5 for non-responders and 7.0 for responders (p=0.010). The mean number of ECT treatments did not differ significantly between remitters and non-remitters (7.2 vs 6.1, p=0.31). None of the other investigated potential predictors was statistically significantly associated with outcome.Conclusions: ECT is an effective treatment for cycloid psychosis. Future studies need to compare the outcome of ECT to that of other treatment strategies. Clinical implications: The high response rate with ECT indicates that cycloid psychosis is a clinically useful diagnosis.
9.
  • Montgomery, Scott, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood exposures among mothers and Hodgkin's lymphoma in offspring
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology. - Elsevier. - 1877-7821. ; 39:6, s. 1006-1009
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Childhood exposures in mothers, signaled by number of older and younger siblings, have lifelong consequences for aspects of immune function. We hypothesized that these may influence young adult-onset Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) risk in offspring.Materials and methods: Swedish registers identified 2028 cases of young adult onset HL (diagnosed between ages 15-39 years) up to 2012 among those born since 1958; and 18,374 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess HL risk associated with number of older and younger siblings of mothers.Results: Having a mother with more than two older siblings is associated with lower HL risk, and the association is statistically significant for mothers with three or more siblings, compared with none. The adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) are 1.04 (0.93-1.16); 0.95 (0.81-1.10); and 0.81 (0.66-0.98) for one, two, and three or more older siblings, respectively. There is no association between number of mothers' younger siblings and HL risk.Conclusions: Exposures during the childhood of mothers may influence young onset adult HL risk in offspring, perhaps through vertical transmission of infectious agents, or through other long-term influences on maternal immune function.
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10.
  • Montgomery, Scott M., et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in childhood hearing impairment and adult obesity
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Longitudinal and life course studies. - 1757-9597. ; 1:4, s. 359-370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some adult neurological complications of obesity may have early-life origins. Here, we examine associations of childhood hearing impairment with childhood and adult obesity, among 3288 male and 3527 female members of a longitudinal cohort born in Great Britain in 1970. Height and weight were measured at age 10 years and self-reported at 34 years. Audiometry was conducted at age 10 years. The dependent variable in logistic regression was minor bilateral hearing impairment as a marker of systemic effects, while BMI at age 10 or 34 years were modelled as independent variables with adjustment for potential confounding factors including social class, maternal education and pubertal development at age 10 years. Among females, the adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for hearing impairment at age 10 years were 2.33 (1.36-3.98) for overweight/obesity; and at age 34 years they were 1.71 (1.00-2.92) for overweight and 2.73 (1.58-4.71) for obesity and the associations were not explained by Childhood BMI at age 10 years. There were no consistent associations among males and interaction testing revealed statistically significant effect modification by sex. The dose-dependent associations among females are consistent with childhood origins for some obesity-associated impaired neurological function and the possible existence of a 'pre-obese syndrome'. The accumulation of risks for poorer health among those who become obese in later life begins in childhood. Childhood exposures associated with bilateral hearing impairment are risks for obesity in later life among females.
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