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1.
  • Bruze, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of Bariatric Surgery With Changes in Interpersonal Relationship Status: Results From 2 Swedish Cohort Studies.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA surgery. - 2168-6262. ; 153:7, s. 654-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bariatric surgery is a life-changing treatment for patients with severe obesity, but little is known about its association with interpersonal relationships.To investigate if relationship status is altered after bariatric surgery.Changes in relationship status after bariatric surgery were examined in 2 cohorts: (1) the prospective Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which recruited patients undergoing bariatric surgery from September 1, 1987, to January 31, 2001, and compared their care with usual nonsurgical care in matched obese control participants; and (2) participants from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg), a prospective, electronically captured register that recruited patients from January 2007 through December 2012 and selected comparator participants from the general population matched on age, sex, and place of residence. Data was collected in surgical departments and primary health care centers in Sweden. The current analysis includes data collected up until July 2015 (SOS) and December 2012 (SOReg). Data analysis was completed from June 2016 to December 2017.In the SOS study, information on relationship status was obtained from questionnaires. In the SOReg and general population cohort, information on marriage and divorce was obtained from the Swedish Total Population Registry.The SOS study included 1958 patients who had bariatric surgery (of whom 1389 [70.9%] were female) and 1912 matched obese controls (of whom 1354 [70.8%] were female) and had a median (range) follow-up of 10 (0.5-20) years. The SOReg cohort included 29 234 patients who had gastric bypass surgery (of whom 22 131 [75.6%] were female) and 283 748 comparators from the general population (of whom 214 342 [75.5%] were female), and had a median (range) follow-up of 2.9 (0.003-7.0) years. In the SOS study, the surgical patients received gastric banding (n = 368; 18.8%), vertical banded gastroplasty (n = 1331; 68.0%), or gastric bypass (n = 259; 13.2%); controls received usual obesity care. In SOReg, all 29 234 surgical participants received gastric bypass surgery. In the SOS study, bariatric surgery was associated with increased incidence of divorce/separation compared with controls for those in a relationship (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.60; P = .03) and increased incidence of marriage or new relationship (aHR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.52-2.71; P < .001) in those who were unmarried or single at baseline. In the SOReg and general population cohort, gastric bypass was associated with increased incidence of divorce compared with married control participants (aHR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.33-1.49; P < .001) and increased incidence of marriage in those who were unmarried at baseline (aHR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.28-1.42; P < .001). Within the surgery groups, changes in relationship status were more common in those with larger weight loss.In addition to its association with obesity comorbidities, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss is also associated with changes in relationship status.
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2.
  • Neovius, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of suicide and non-fatal self-harm after bariatric surgery: results from two matched cohort studies.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. - 2213-8595. ; 6:3, s. 197-207
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bariatric surgery reduces mortality, but might have adverse effects on mental health. We assessed the risk of suicide and self-harm after bariatric surgery compared with non-surgical obesity treatment.Suicide and non-fatal self-harm events retrieved from nationwide Swedish registers were examined in two cohorts. The non-randomised, prospective Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study compared bariatric surgery (n=2010; 1369 vertical-banded gastroplasty, 376 gastric banding, and 265 gastric bypass) with usual care (n=2037; recruitment 1987-2001). The second cohort consisted of individuals from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg; n=20 256 patients who had gastric bypass) matched to individuals treated with intensive lifestyle modification (n=16 162; intervention 2006-13) on baseline BMI, age, sex, education level, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, history of self-harm, substance misuse, antidepressant use, anxiolytics use, and psychiatric health-care contacts.During 68 528 person-years (median 18; IQR 14-21) in the SOS study, suicides or non-fatal self-harm events were higher in the surgery group (n=87) than in the control group (n=49; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·78, 95% CI 1·23-2·57; p=0·0021); of these events, nine and three were suicides, respectively (3·06, 0·79-11·88; p=0·11). In analyses by primary procedure type, increased risk of suicide or non-fatal self-harm was identified for gastric bypass (3·48, 1·65-7·31; p=0·0010), gastric banding (2·43, 1·23-4·82; p=0·011), and vertical-banded gastroplasty (2·25, 1·37-3·71; p=0·0015) compared with controls. Out of nine deaths by suicide in the SOS surgery group, five occurred after gastric bypass (two primary and three converted procedures). During 149 582 person-years (median 3·9; IQR 2·8-5·2), more suicides or non-fatal self-harm events were reported in the SOReg gastric bypass group (n=341) than in the intensive lifestyle group (n=84; aHR 3·16, 2·46-4·06; p<0·0001); of these events, 33 and five were suicides, respectively (5·17, 1·86-14·37; p=0·0017). In SOS, substance misuse during follow-up was recorded in 48% (39/81) of patients treated with surgery and 28% (13/47) of controls with non-fatal self-harm events (p=0·023). Correspondingly, substance misuse during follow-up was recorded in 51% (162/316) of participants in the SOReg gastric bypass group and 29% (23/80) of participants in the intensive lifestyle group with non-fatal self-harm events (p=0·0003). The risk of suicide and self-harm was not associated with poor weight loss outcome.Bariatric surgery was associated with suicide and non-fatal self-harm. However, the absolute risks were low and do not justify a general discouragement of bariatric surgery. The findings indicate a need for thorough preoperative psychiatric history assessment along with provision of information about increased risk of self-harm following surgery. Moreover, the findings call for postoperative surveillance with particular attention to mental health.US National Institutes of Health and Swedish Research Council.
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3.
  • Olbers, Torsten, et al. (författare)
  • Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in adolescents with severe obesity (AMOS): a prospective, 5-year, Swedish nationwide study.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. - 2213-8595. ; 5:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Severe obesity in adolescence is associated with reduced life expectancy and impaired quality of life. Long-term benefits of conservative treatments in adolescents are known to be modest, whereas short-term outcomes of adolescent bariatric surgery are promising. We aimed to compare 5-year outcomes of adolescent surgical patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with those of conservatively treated adolescents and of adults undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in the Adolescent Morbid Obesity Surgery (AMOS) study.METHODS: We did a nationwide, prospective, non-randomised controlled study of adolescents (aged 13-18 years) with severe obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at three specialised paediatric obesity treatment centres in Sweden. We compared clinical outcomes in adolescent surgical patients with those of matched adolescent controls undergoing conservative treatment and of adult controls undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The primary outcome measure was change in BMI over 5 years. We used multilevel mixed-effect regression models to assess longitudinal changes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00289705.FINDINGS: Between April, 2006, and May, 2009, 100 adolescents were recruited to the study, of whom 81 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (mean age 16·5 years [SD 1·2], bodyweight 132·8 kg [22·1], and BMI 45·5 kg/m(2) [SD 6·1]). 80 matched adolescent controls and 81 matched adult controls were enrolled for comparison of outcomes. The change in bodyweight in adolescent surgical patients over 5 years was -36·8 kg (95% CI -40·9 to -32·8), resulting in a reduction in BMI of -13·1 kg/m(2) (95% CI -14·5 to -11·8), although weight loss less than 10% occurred in nine (11%). Mean BMI rose in adolescent controls (3·3 kg/m(2), 95% CI 1·1-4·8) over the 5-year study period, whereas the BMI change in adult controls was similar to that in adolescent surgical patients (mean change -12·3 kg/m(2), 95% CI -13·7 to -10·9). Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent surgical patients showed improvement over 5 years and compared favourably with those in adolescent controls. 20 (25%) of 81 adolescent surgical patients underwent additional abdominal surgery for complications of surgery or rapid weight loss and 58 (72%) showed some type of nutritional deficiency; health-care consumption (hospital attendances and admissions) was higher in adolescent surgical patients compared with adolescent controls. 20 (25%) of 81 adolescent controls underwent bariatric surgery during the 5-year follow-up.INTERPRETATION: Adolescents with severe obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass had substantial weight loss over 5 years, alongside improvements in comorbidities and risk factors. However, gastric bypass was associated with additional surgical interventions and nutritional deficiencies. Conventional non-surgical treatment was associated with weight gain and a quarter of patients had bariatric surgery within 5 years.FUNDING: Swedish Research Council; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems; National Board of Health and Welfare; Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation; Swedish Childhood Diabetes Foundation; Swedish Order of Freemasons Children's Foundation; Stockholm County Council; Västra Götaland Region; Mrs Mary von Sydow Foundation; Stiftelsen Göteborgs Barnhus; Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset; and the US National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (National Institutes of Health).
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4.
  • Sundström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Weight Loss and Heart Failure A Nationwide Study of Gastric Bypass Surgery Versus Intensive Lifestyle Treatment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322. ; 135:17, s. 1577-1585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Associations of obesity with incidence of heart failure have been observed, but the causality is uncertain. We hypothesized that gastric bypass surgery leads to lower incidence of heart failure compared to intensive lifestyle modification in obese people.Methods: We included obese people without previous heart failure from a Swedish nationwide registry of people treated with a structured intensive lifestyle program, and the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry. All analyses used inverse probability weights, based on baseline body-mass index and a propensity score estimated using baseline variables. Treatment groups were well balanced regarding weight, body mass index and most potential confounders. Associations of treatment with heart failure incidence, as defined in the National Patient Register, were analyzed using Cox regression.Results: The 25,804 gastric bypass surgery patients had on average lost 18.8 kg more weight after 1 year, and 22.6 kg more after 2 years, than the 13,701 lifestyle modification patients. During a median of 4.1 years, surgery patients had lower heart failure incidence than lifestyle modification patients (hazard ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.36-0.82). A 10 kg achieved weight loss after 1 year was related to a hazard ratio for heart failure of 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.97, in both treatment groups combined. Results were robust in sensitivity analyses.Conclusions: Gastric bypass surgery was associated with approximately one half the incidence of heart failure compared with intensive lifestyle modification in this study of two large nationwide registries. We also observed a graded association between increasing weight loss and decreasing risk of heart failure.
5.
  • Backman, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Gastric Bypass Surgery Reduces De Novo Cases of Type 2 Diabetes to Population Levels : A Nationwide Cohort Study From Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0003-4932 .- 1528-1140. ; 269:5, s. 895-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine long-term changes in pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, in patients with and without pharmacological treatment of diabetes preoperatively.</p><p><strong>SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:</strong> Several studies have shown that gastric bypass has good effect on diabetes, at least in the short-term. This study is a nationwide cohort study using Swedish registers, with basically no patients lost to follow-up during up to 7 years after surgery.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> The effect of RYGB on type 2 diabetes drug treatment was evaluated in this nationwide matched cohort study. Participants were 22,047 adults with BMI ≥30 identified in the nationwide Scandinavian Surgical Obesity Registry, who underwent primary RYGB between 2007 and 2012. For each individual, up to 10 general population comparators were matched on birth year, sex, and place of residence. Prescription data were retrieved from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register through September 2015. Incident use of pharmacological treatment was analyzed using Cox regression.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Sixty-seven percent of patients with pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes before surgery were not using diabetes drugs 2 years after surgery and 61% of patients were not pharmacologically treated up to 7 years after surgery. In patients not using diabetes drugs at baseline, there were 189 new cases of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes in the surgery group and 2319 in the matched general population comparators during a median follow-up of 4.6 years (incidence: 21.4 vs 27.9 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.89; P &lt; 0.001).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Gastric bypass surgery not only induces remission of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes but also protects from new onset of pharmacological diabetes treatment. The effect seems to persist in most, but not all, patients over 7 years of follow-up.</p>
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6.
  • Backman, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Gastric Bypass Surgery Reduces De Novo Cases of Type 2 Diabetes to Population Levels A Nationwide Cohort Study From Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0003-4932 .- 1528-1140. ; 269:5, s. 895-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objective: The aim of this study was to determine long-term changes in pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, in patients with and without pharmacological treatment of diabetes preoperatively.</p><p>Summary of Background Data: Several studies have shown that gastric bypass has good effect on diabetes, at least in the short-term. This study is a nationwide cohort study using Swedish registers, with basically no patients lost to follow-up during up to 7 years after surgery.</p><p>Methods: The effect of RYGB on type 2 diabetes drug treatment was evaluated in this nationwide matched cohort study. Participants were 22,047 adults with BMI ≥30 identified in the nationwide Scandinavian Surgical Obesity Registry, who underwent primary RYGB between 2007 and 2012. For each individual, up to 10 general population comparators were matched on birth year, sex, and place of residence. Prescription data were retrieved from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register through September 2015. Incident use of pharmacological treatment was analyzed using Cox regression.</p><p>Results: Sixty-seven percent of patients with pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes before surgery were not using diabetes drugs 2 years after surgery and 61% of patients were not pharmacologically treated up to 7 years after surgery. In patients not using diabetes drugs at baseline, there were 189 new cases of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes in the surgery group and 2319 in the matched general population comparators during a median follow-up of 4.6 years (incidence: 21.4 vs 27.9 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.67–0.89; <em>P</em> &lt; 0.001).</p><p>Conclusions: Gastric bypass surgery not only induces remission of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetesbut also protects from new onset of pharmacological diabetes treatment. The effect seems to persist in most, but not all, patients over 7 years of follow-up.</p>
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7.
  • Jarvholm, Kajsa, et al. (författare)
  • 5-year mental health and eating pattern outcomes following bariatric surgery in adolescents: a prospective cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: LANCET CHILD and ADOLESCENT HEALTH. - ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 2352-4642. ; 4:3, s. 210-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background Mental health problems are prevalent among adolescents with severe obesity, but long-term mental health outcomes after adolescent bariatric surgery are not well known. We aimed to assess mental health outcomes over 5 years of follow-up after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in adolescents who participated in the Adolescent Morbid Obesity Surgery (AMOS) study. Methods This was a non-randomised matched-control study in adolescents aged 13-18 years who had a BMI of 40 kg/m(2) or higher, or 35 kg/m(2) or higher in addition to obesity-related comorbidity; who had previously undergone failed comprehensive conservative treatment; and were of pubertal Tanner stage III or higher, with height growth velocity beyond peak. A contemporary control group, matched for BMI, age, and sex, who underwent conventional obesity treatment, was obtained from the Swedish Childhood Obesity Treatment Register. Data on dispensed psychiatric drugs and specialist treatment for mental disorders were retrieved from national registers with complete coverage. In the surgical group only, questionnaires were used to assess self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem [RSE] score), mood (Mood Adjective Checklist [MACL]), and eating patterns (Binge Eating Scale [BES] and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 [TFEQ]). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00289705). Findings Between April 10, 2006, and May 20, 2009, 81 adolescents (53 [65%] female) underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, and 80 control participants received conventional treatment. The proportion of participants prescribed psychiatric drugs did not differ between groups in the years before study inclusion (pre-baseline; absolute risk difference 5% [95% CI -7 to 16], p=0.4263) or after intervention (10% [-6 to 24], p=0.2175). Treatment for mental and behavioural disorders did not differ between groups before baseline (2% [-10 to 14], p=0.7135); however, adolescents in the surgical group had more specialised psychiatric treatment in the 5 years after obesity treatment than did the control group (15% [1 to 28], p=0.0410). There were few patients who discontinued psychiatric treatment post-surgery (three [4%] receiving psychiatric drug treatment and six [7%] receiving specialised care for a mental disorder before surgery). In the surgical group, self-esteem (RSE score) was improved after 5 years (mixed model mean 21.6 [95% CI 19.9 to 23.4]) relative to baseline (18.9 [17.4 to 20.4], p=0.0059), but overall mood (MACL score) was not (2.8 [2.7 to 2.9] at 5 years vs 2.7 [2.6 to 2.8] at baseline, p=0.0737). Binge eating was improved at 5 years (9.3 [7.4 to 11.2]) relative to baseline (15.0 [13.5 to 16.5], pamp;lt;0.0001). Relative changes in BMI were not associated with the presence or absence of binge eating at baseline. Interpretation Mental health problems persist in adolescents 5 years after bariatric surgery despite substantial weight loss. Although bariatric surgery can improve many aspects of health, alleviation of mental health problems should not be expected, and a multidisciplinary bariatric team should offer long-term mental health support after surgery. Copyright (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p>
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8.
  • Järvholm, Kajsa, et al. (författare)
  • 5-year mental health and eating pattern outcomes following bariatric surgery in adolescents : a prospective cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Child & adolescent health. - Elsevier. - 2352-4642 .- 2352-4650. ; 4:3, s. 210-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Mental health problems are prevalent among adolescents with severe obesity, but long-term mental health outcomes after adolescent bariatric surgery are not well known. We aimed to assess mental health outcomes over 5 years of follow-up after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in adolescents who participated in the Adolescent Morbid Obesity Surgery (AMOS) study.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> or higher in addition to obesity-related comorbidity; who had previously undergone failed comprehensive conservative treatment; and were of pubertal Tanner stage III or higher, with height growth velocity beyond peak. A contemporary control group, matched for BMI, age, and sex, who underwent conventional obesity treatment, was obtained from the Swedish Childhood Obesity Treatment Register. Data on dispensed psychiatric drugs and specialist treatment for mental disorders were retrieved from national registers with complete coverage. In the surgical group only, questionnaires were used to assess self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem [RSE] score), mood (Mood Adjective Checklist [MACL]), and eating patterns (Binge Eating Scale [BES] and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 [TFEQ]). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00289705).</p><p><strong>FINDINGS:</strong> Between April 10, 2006, and May 20, 2009, 81 adolescents (53 [65%] female) underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, and 80 control participants received conventional treatment. The proportion of participants prescribed psychiatric drugs did not differ between groups in the years before study inclusion (pre-baseline; absolute risk difference 5% [95% CI -7 to 16], p=0·4263) or after intervention (10% [-6 to 24], p=0·2175). Treatment for mental and behavioural disorders did not differ between groups before baseline (2% [-10 to 14], p=0·7135); however, adolescents in the surgical group had more specialised psychiatric treatment in the 5 years after obesity treatment than did the control group (15% [1 to 28], p=0·0410). There were few patients who discontinued psychiatric treatment post-surgery (three [4%] receiving psychiatric drug treatment and six [7%] receiving specialised care for a mental disorder before surgery). In the surgical group, self-esteem (RSE score) was improved after 5 years (mixed model mean 21·6 [95% CI 19·9 to 23·4]) relative to baseline (18·9 [17·4 to 20·4], p=0·0059), but overall mood (MACL score) was not (2·8 [2·7 to 2·9] at 5 years vs 2·7 [2·6 to 2·8] at baseline, p=0·0737). Binge eating was improved at 5 years (9·3 [7·4 to 11·2]) relative to baseline (15·0 [13·5 to 16·5], p&lt;0·0001). Relative changes in BMI were not associated with the presence or absence of binge eating at baseline.</p><p><strong>INTERPRETATION:</strong> Mental health problems persist in adolescents 5 years after bariatric surgery despite substantial weight loss. Although bariatric surgery can improve many aspects of health, alleviation of mental health problems should not be expected, and a multidisciplinary bariatric team should offer long-term mental health support after surgery.</p><p><strong></strong></p>
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9.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • The longitudinal integrated database for health insurance and labour market studies (LISA) and its use in medical research
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Springer. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 34:4, s. 423-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Education, income, and occupation are factors known to affect health and disease. In this review we describe the Swedish Longitudinal Integrated Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies (LISA, Longitudinell Integrationsdatabas for Sjukforsakrings- och Arbetsmarknadsstudier). LISA covers the adult Swedish population aged16years registered on December 31 each year since 1990 (since 2010 individuals aged15years). The database was launched in response to rising levels of sick leave in the country. Participation in Swedish government-administered registers such as LISA is compulsory, and hence selection bias is minimized. The LISA database allows researchers to identify individuals who do not work because of injury, disease, or rehabilitation. It contains data on sick leave and disability pension based on calendar year. LISA also includes information on unemployment benefits, disposable income, social welfare payments, civil status, and migration. During 2000-2017, an average of 97,000 individuals immigrated to Sweden each year. This corresponds to about 1% of the Swedish population (10 million people in 2017). Data on occupation have a completeness of 95%. Income data consist primarily of income from employment, capital, and allowances, including parental allowance. In Sweden, work force participation is around 80% (2017: overall: 79.1%; men 80.3% and women 77.9%). Education data are available in&gt;98% of all individuals aged 25-64years, with an estimated accuracy for highest attained level of education of 85%. Some information on civil status, income, education, and employment before 1990 can be obtained through the Population and Housing Census data (FoB, Folk- och bostadsrakningen).</p>
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10.
  • Neovius, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of suicide and non-fatal self-harm after bariatric surgery : results from two matched cohort studies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. - Elsevier. - 2213-8587 .- 2213-8595. ; 6:3, s. 197-207
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background Bariatric surgery reduces mortality, but might have adverse effects on mental health. We assessed the risk of suicide and self-harm after bariatric surgery compared with non-surgical obesity treatment. Methods Suicide and non-fatal self-harm events retrieved from nationwide Swedish registers were examined in two cohorts. The non-randomised, prospective Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study compared bariatric surgery (n=2010; 1369 vertical-banded gastroplasty, 376 gastric banding, and 265 gastric bypass) with usual care (n=2037; recruitment 1987-2001). The second cohort consisted of individuals from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg; n=20 256 patients who had gastric bypass) matched to individuals treated with intensive lifestyle modification (n=16 162; intervention 2006-13) on baseline BMI, age, sex, education level, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, history of self-harm, substance misuse, antidepressant use, anxiolytics use, and psychiatric health-care contacts. Findings During 68 528 person-years (median 18; IQR 14-21) in the SOS study, suicides or non-fatal self-harm events were higher in the surgery group (n=87) than in the control group (n=49; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.23-2.57; p=0.0021); of these events, nine and three were suicides, respectively (3.06, 0.79-11.88; p=0.11). In analyses by primary procedure type, increased risk of suicide or non-fatal self-harm was identified for gastric bypass (3.48, 1.65-7.31; p=0.0010), gastric banding (2.43, 1.23-4.82; p=0.011), and vertical-banded gastroplasty (2.25, 1.37-3.71; p=0.0015) compared with controls. Out of nine deaths by suicide in the SOS surgery group, five occurred after gastric bypass (two primary and three converted procedures). During 149 582 person-years (median 3.9; IQR 2.8-5.2), more suicides or non-fatal self-harm events were reported in the SOReg gastric bypass group (n=341) than in the intensive lifestyle group (n=84; aHR 3.16, 2.46-4.06; p&lt;0.0001); of these events, 33 and five were suicides, respectively (5.17, 1.86-14.37; p=0.0017). In SOS, substance misuse during follow-up was recorded in 48% (39/81) of patients treated with surgery and 28% (13/47) of controls with non-fatal self-harm events (p=0.023). Correspondingly, substance misuse during follow-up was recorded in 51% (162/316) of participants in the SOReg gastric bypass group and 29% (23/80) of participants in the intensive lifestyle group with non-fatal self-harm events (p=0.0003). The risk of suicide and self-harm was not associated with poor weight loss outcome. Interpretation Bariatric surgery was associated with suicide and non-fatal self-harm. However, the absolute risks were low and do not justify a general discouragement of bariatric surgery. The findings indicate a need for thorough preoperative psychiatric history assessment along with provision of information about increased risk of self-harm following surgery. Moreover, the findings call for postoperative surveillance with particular attention to mental health.</p>
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