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1.
  • Fall, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Contact allergy trends in Sweden - a retrospective comparison of patch test data from 1992, 2000, and 2009
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0105-1873 .- 1600-0536. ; 72:5, s. 297-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Contact allergy prevalence rates change over time as a result of variations in allergen exposure. Data from patch test clinics are often used as markers for allergy trends. Objectives. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe trends in rates of sensitization to allergens in the Swedish baseline series. Patients/materials/methods. Prevalence rates are described by comparing consecutive patch test data from 1992, 2000 and 2009 in Swedish patch test clinics. In total, 3680 patients were included in 1992, 3825 in 2000, and 3112 in 2009. Results. Among test substances with a sensitization rate above 2% in 2009, significant decreases were noted for nickel sulfate, cobalt chloride, colophonium, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), and a significant increase for p-phenylenediamine, as compared with 1992. Potassium dichromate reactions had increased among younger women, whereas reactions to nickel and cobalt had decreased in this group. Sensitization to chromium, cobalt and fragrance mix I had decreased among older men, and sensitization to nickel had decreased among younger men. Conclusions. It is probable that these changes in 1992-2009 reflect both changes in regulations for nickel, lower levels of chromium in cement and of MCI/MI in cosmetics, and increasing use of hair dyes.
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2.
  • Hagvall, Lina, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Contact allergy to citral and its constituents geranial and neral, coupled with reactions to the prehapten and prohapten geraniol
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0105-1873 .- 1600-0536. ; 82:1, s. 31-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Citral is commonly used as a fragrance and flavor material and consists of the aldehydes geranial and neral. Citral is included in fragrance mix (FM) II. Geranial and neral have also been identified in autoxidation of geraniol, a fragrance compound present in FM I. Objectives To study contact allergy to citral, geranial, and neral, and concomitant reactivity to oxidized geraniol and fragrance markers of the baseline series. Methods A total of 1476 dermatitis patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested using geranial, neral, and citral, all 3.5% petrolatum (pet.) as well as geraniol 6.0% and oxidized geraniol 11% pet. in addition to the Swedish baseline series. Results Frequencies of positive reactions to citral, geranial, and neral were 2.9%, 3.4% and 1.9%, respectively. Together, citral and geranial gave 4.2% positive patch test reactions in consecutive dermatitis patients. In patients with positive reactions to citral or its components, 25% to 34% reacted to FM II and 61% reacted to oxidized geraniol. Conclusions Patch testing with citral, its components, or oxidized geraniol detects contact allergic reactions not detected using the baseline series. Patch testing with pure geraniol was shown to be of little value. Geranial and neral, although closely chemically related, are concluded to be separate haptens.
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3.
  • Hagvall, Lina, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Contact allergy to oxidized geraniol among Swedish dermatitis patients-A multicentre study by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0105-1873. ; 79:4, s. 232-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Geraniol is a widely used fragrance terpene, and is included in fragrance mix I. Geraniol is prone to autoxidation, forming the skin sensitizers geranial, neral, and geraniol-7-hydroperoxide. Oxidized geraniol has previously been patch tested in 1 clinic, giving 1% to 4.6% positive reactions in consecutive patients when tested at 2% to 11%. Aim: To compare test reactions to pure and oxidized geraniol, to compare 2 different test concentrations of oxidized geraniol and to investigate the pattern of concomitant reactions to fragrance markers of the baseline series in a multicentre setting. Methods: One thousand four hundred and seventy-six consecutive patients referred for patch testing were patch tested with geraniol 6% pet. and oxidized geraniol 6% and 11% pet. Results: Pure geraniol 6% pet., oxidized geraniol 6% pet. and oxidized geraniol 11% pet. gave 1%, 3% and 8% positive patch test reactions and 0.7%, 3% and 5% doubtful reactions, respectively. Approximately 50% of the patients with doubtful reactions to oxidized geraniol 6% pet. had positive reactions to oxidized geraniol 11% pet. Conclusions: Oxidized geraniol 11% pet. provides better detection than oxidized geraniol 6% pet. As most patients reacted only to oxidized geraniol, it is important to explore further whether oxidized geraniol should be included in a baseline patch test series.
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5.
  • Isaksson, Marléne, et al. (författare)
  • Patch testing with formaldehyde 2.0% in parallel with 1.0% by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica. - : Medical Journals Limited. - 0001-5555 .- 1651-2057. ; 94:4, s. 408-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a multicentre study consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients were tested simultaneously with 1.0% and 2.0% (w/v) formaldehyde in aqua applied with a micropipette (15 µl) to the filter paper disc in Finn Chambers (0.30 mg/cm2 and 0.60 mg/cm2, respectively). A total of 2,122 dermatitis patients were patch-tested. In all, 77 (3.6%) patients reacted positively to formaldehyde; 37 reacted only to 2.0%, 35 reacted to both concentrations and 5 patients reacted only to 1.0%. Significantly more patients were thus diagnosed with contact allergy to formaldehyde with 2.0% compared to 1.0% (p < 0.001) without causing more irritant reactions. The detected number of isolated allergic reactions to the 2 formaldehyde-releasers in the Swedish baseline series and not to formaldehyde itself raises the question whether quaternium-15 1.0% and diazolidinyl urea 2.0% should be present in the Swedish baseline series.
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6.
  • Isaksson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Suitable test concentration of cobalt and concomitant reactivity to nickel and chromium. A multicentre study from the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0105-1873 .- 1600-0536.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In Sweden, cobalt chloride 0.5% has been included in the baseline series since the mid-1980s. A recent study from Stockholm showed that cobalt chloride 1% petrolatum (pet.) was more suitable than 0.5%. Cobalt chloride at 1.0% has been patch tested for decades in many European countries and around the world. Objectives To study the suitability of patch testing to cobalt 1.0% vs 0.5% and to analyze the co-occurrence of allergy to cobalt, chromium, and nickel. Results Contact allergy to cobalt was shown in 90 patients (6.6%). Eighty (5.9%) patients tested positive to cobalt 1.0%. Thirty-seven of the 90 patients (41.1%) with cobalt allergy were missed by cobalt 0.5% and 10 (0.7%) were missed by cobalt 1.0% (P < .001). No case of patch test sensitization was reported. Allergy to chromium was seen in 2.6% and allergy to nickel in 13.3%. Solitary allergy to cobalt without nickel allergy was shown in 61.1% of cobalt-positive individuals. Female patients had larger proportions of positive reactions to cobalt (P = .036) and nickel (P < .001) than males. Conclusion The results speak in favor of replacing cobalt chloride 0.5% with cobalt chloride 1.0% pet. in the Swedish baseline series, which will be done 2021.
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7.
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8.
  • Johansen, Jeanne D, et al. (författare)
  • European Society of Contact Dermatitis guideline for diagnostic patch testing - recommendations on best practice.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0105-1873 .- 1600-0536. ; 73:4, s. 195-221
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present guideline summarizes all aspects of patch testing for the diagnosis of contact allergy in patients suspected of suffering, or having been suffering, from allergic contact dermatitis or other delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and mucosal conditions. Sections with brief descriptions and discussions of different pertinent topics are followed by a highlighted short practical recommendation. Topics comprise, after an introduction with important definitions, materials, technique, modifications of epicutaneous testing, individual factors influencing the patch test outcome or necessitating special considerations, children, patients with occupational contact dermatitis and drug eruptions as special groups, patch testing of materials brought in by the patient, adverse effects of patch testing, and the final evaluation and patient counselling based on this judgement. Finally, short reference is made to aspects of (continuing) medical education and to electronic collection of data for epidemiological surveillance.
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9.
  • Ryberg, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Patch Testing with a Textile Dye Mix in Two Concentrations - A Multicentre Study by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta dermato-venereologica. - 1651-2057. ; 95:4, s. 427-431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disperse dyes, which are used for colouring synthetic textile fibres, are well-known contact sensitisers. To investigate the outcome of patch-testing with a textile dye mix (TDM) at 7 dermatology clinics in Sweden, a TDM tested at 2 concentrations was included into the baseline series during one year. The mix consisted of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0%, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3% in the mix 6.6% and 1.0% each in the mix 8.0%. In 2,122 tested patients, contact allergy to the TDM 8.0% was found in 2.8% and to the TDM 6.6% in 2.5% of the patients. The contact allergy to the TDM could explain or contribute to the dermatitis in about 35% of the patients. Conclusion: contact allergy to the TDM is common and inclusion into the Swedish baseline series should be considered.
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10.
  • Anveden, I, et al. (författare)
  • Oral prednisone suppresses allergic but not irritant patch test reactions in individuals hypersensitive to nickel
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0105-1873. ; 50:5, s. 298-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of prednisone on allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 24 subjects with known allergy to nickel were recruited and patch tested with a nickel sulfate dilution series in aqueous solution, 5% nickel sulfate in petrolatum and 2 dilution series of the irritants nonanoic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate. The subjects were tested x2, both during treatment with prednisone 20 mg oral daily and during placebo treatment. The total number of positive nickel patch test reactions decreased significantly in patients during prednisone treatment. The threshold concentration to elicit a patch test reaction increased and the overall degree of reactivity to nickel sulfate shifted towards weaker reactions. The effect of prednisone treatment on the response to irritants was divergent with both increased and decreased numbers of reactions, although there were no statistically significant differences compared with placebo. It is concluded that oral treatment with prednisone suppresses patch test reactivity to nickel, but not to the irritants tested.
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