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  • Javaras, K N, et al. (författare)
  • Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 47:3, s. 576-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence.METHOD: Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history.RESULTS: Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED.CONCLUSIONS: In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.
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  • Cesta, Carolyn E., et al. (författare)
  • Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring : prenatal androgen exposure or genetic confounding?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 50:4, s. 616-624
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences.METHODS: A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Tourette's disorder and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). PCOS-exposed offspring (n = 21 280) were compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring (n = 200 816) and PCOS-unexposed cousins (n = 17 295). Associations were estimated with stratified Cox regression models.RESULTS: PCOS-exposed offspring had increased risk of being diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, and TD/CTD compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring. Associations were stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD but not TD/CTD [ADHD: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.99), ASD: aHR = 2.02 (95% CI 1.45-2.82)] than boys [ADHD: aHR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.19-1.57), ASD: aHR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.21-1.76)]. For ADHD and ASD, aHRs for girls were stronger when compared with PCOS-unexposed cousins, but slightly attenuated for boys.CONCLUSIONS: Estimates were similar when accounting for familial confounding (i.e. genetics and environmental factors shared by cousins) and stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD, potentially indicating a differential influence of prenatal androgen exposure v. genetic factors. These results strengthen evidence for a potential causal influence of prenatal androgen exposure on the development of male-predominant neuropsychiatric disorders in female offspring of women with PCOS.
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  • Dinkler, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Association of etiological factors across the extreme end and continuous variation in disordered eating in female Swedish twins
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Accumulating evidence suggests that many psychiatric disorders etiologically represent the extreme end of dimensionally distributed features rather than distinct entities. The extent to which this applies to eating disorders (EDs) is unknown. Methods We investigated if there is similar etiology in (a) the continuous distribution of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), (b) the extremes of EDI-2 score, and (c) registered ED diagnoses, in 1481 female twin pairs at age 18 years (born 1992–1999). EDI-2 scores were self-reported at age 18. ED diagnoses were identified through the Swedish National Patient Register, parent-reported treatment and/or self-reported purging behavior of a frequency and duration consistent with DSM-IV criteria. We differentiated between anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs. Results The heritability of the EDI-2 score was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61–0.68). The group heritabilities in DeFries–Fulker extremes analyses were consistent over different percentile-based extreme groups [0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.81) to 0.65 (95% CI 0.55–0.75)]. Similarly, the heritabilities in liability threshold models were consistent over different levels of severity. In joint categorical-continuous models, the twin-based genetic correlation was 0.52 (95% CI 0.39–0.65) between EDI-2 score and diagnoses of other EDs, and 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.42) between EDI-2 score and diagnoses of AN. The non-shared environmental correlations were 0.52 (95% CI 0.32–0.70) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.38–0.79), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that some EDs can partly be conceptualized as the extreme manifestation of continuously distributed ED features. AN, however, might be more distinctly genetically demarcated from ED features in the general population than other EDs.
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  • Hedman, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Bidirectional relationship between eating disorders and autoimmune diseases
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 60:7, s. 803-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Immune system dysfunction may be associated with eating disorders (ED) and could have implications for detection, risk assessment, and treatment of both autoimmune diseases and EDs. However, questions regarding the nature of the relationship between these two disease entities remain. We evaluated the strength of associations for the bidirectional relationships between EDs and autoimmune diseases.METHODS: In this nationwide population-based study, Swedish registers were linked to establish a cohort of more than 2.5 million individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 2005 and followed up until December 2013. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate: (a) subsequent risk of EDs in individuals with autoimmune diseases; and (b) subsequent risk of autoimmune diseases in individuals with EDs.RESULTS: We observed a strong, bidirectional relationship between the two illness classes indicating that diagnosis in one illness class increased the risk of the other. In women, the diagnoses of autoimmune disease increased subsequent hazards of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and other eating disorders (OED). Similarly, AN, BN, and OED increased subsequent hazards of autoimmune diseases.Gastrointestinal-related autoimmune diseases such as, celiac disease and Crohn's disease showed a bidirectional relationship with AN and OED. Psoriasis showed a bidirectional relationship with OED. The previous occurence of type 1 diabetes increased the risk for AN, BN, and OED. In men, we did not observe a bidirectional pattern, but prior autoimmune arthritis increased the risk for OED.CONCLUSIONS: The interactions between EDs and autoimmune diseases support the previously reported associations. The bidirectional risk pattern observed in women suggests either a shared mechanism or a third mediating variable contributing to the association of these illnesses.
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