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Sökning: WFRF:(Burillo S. G.)

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1.
  • Henkel, C., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular line emission in NGC 4945, imaged with ALMA
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • NGC 4945 is one of the nearest (D ≈ 3.8 Mpc; 1 00 ≈ 19 pc) starburst galaxies. To investigate the structure, dynamics, and composition of the dense nuclear gas of this galaxy, ALMA band 3 (λ ≈ 3−4 mm) observations were carried out with ≈2 00 resolution. Three HCN and two HC + isotopologues, CS, C 3 H 2 , SiO, HCO, and CH 3 C 2 H were measured. Spectral line imaging demonstrates the presence of a rotating nuclear disk of projected size 10 00 × 2 00 reaching out to a galactocentric radius of r ≈ 100 pc with position angle PA = 45 ◦ ± 2 ◦ , inclination i = 75 ◦ ± 2 ◦ and an unresolved bright central core of size <∼ 2 00 . The continuum source, representing mostly free-free radiation from star forming regions, is more compact than the nuclear disk by a linear factor of two but shows the same position angle and is centered 0 00 . 39 ± 0 00 . 14 northeast of the nuclear accretion disk defined by H 2 O maser emission. Near the systemic velocity but outside the nuclear disk, both HCN J = 1 → 0 and CS J = 2 → 1 delineate molecular arms of length >∼ 15 00 ( >∼ 285 pc) on opposite sides of the dynamical center. These are connected by a (deprojected) ≈ 0.6 kpc sized molecular bridge, likely a dense gaseous bar seen almost ends-on, shifting gas from the front and back side into the nuclear disk. Modeling this nuclear disk located farther inside (r <∼ 100 pc) with tilted rings provides a good fit by inferring a coplanar outflow reaching a characteristic deprojected velocity of ≈50 km s −1 . All our molecular lines, with the notable exception of CH 3 C 2 H, show significant absorption near the systemic velocity (≈571 km s −1 ), within the range ≈500-660 km s −1 . Apparently, only molecular transitions with low critical H 2 density (n crit<∼ 10 4 cm −3 ) do not show absorption. The velocity field of the nuclear disk, derived from CH 3 C 2 H, provides evidence for rigid rotation in the inner few arcseconds and a dynamical mass of M tot = (2.1 ± 0.2) × 10 8 M inside a galactocentric radius of 2 00 . 45 (≈45 pc), with a significantly flattened rotation curve farther out. Velocity integrated line intensity maps with most pronounced absorption show molecular peak positions up to ≈1 00 . 5 (≈30 pc) southwest of the continuum peak, presumably due to absorption, which appears to be most severe slightly northeast of the nuclear maser disk. A nitrogen isotope ratio of 14 N/ 15 N ≈ 200-450 is estimated. This range of values is much higher then previously reported on a tentative basis. Therefore, because 15 N is less abundant than expected, the question for strong 15 N enrichment by massive star ejecta in starbursts still remains to be settled.
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2.
  • Falstad, Niklas, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • CON-quest: Searching for the most obscured galaxy nuclei
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 649
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Some luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) host extremely compact (r < 100 pc) and dusty nuclei. The high extinction associated with large column densities of gas and dust toward these objects render them hard to detect at many wavelengths. The intense infrared radiation arising from warm dust in these sources can provide a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity of the galaxy and is prone to excite vibrational levels of molecules such as HCN. This results in emission from the rotational transitions of vibrationally excited HCN (HCN-vib); the brightest emission is found in compact obscured nuclei (CONs; ςHCN-vib > 1 L⊙ pc-2 in the J = 3-2 transition). However, there have been no systematic searches for CONs, and it is unknown how common they are. Aims. We aim to establish how common CONs are in the local Universe (z < 0.08), and whether their prevalence depends on the luminosity or other properties of the host galaxy. Methods. We conducted an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array survey of the rotational J = 3-2 transition of HCN-vib in a volume-limited sample of 46 far-infrared luminous galaxies. Results. Compact obscured nuclei are identified in 38-13+18% of the ULIRGs, 21-6+12% of the LIRGs, and 0-0+9% of the lower luminosity galaxies. We find no dependence on the inclination of the host galaxy, but strong evidence of lower IRAS 25 μm to 60 μm flux density ratios (f25/f60) in CONs (with the exception of one galaxy, NGC 4418) compared to the rest of the sample. Furthermore, we find that CONs have stronger silicate features (s9.7 μm), but similar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon equivalent widths (EQW6.2 μm) compared to other galaxies. Along with signatures of molecular inflows seen in the far-infrared in most CONs, submillimeter observations also reveal compact, often collimated, outflows. Conclusions. In the local Universe, CONs are primarily found in (U)LIRGs, in which they are remarkably common. As such systems are often highly disturbed, inclinations are difficult to estimate, and high-resolution continuum observations of the individual nuclei are required to determine if the CON phenomenon is related to the inclinations of the nuclear disks. Further studies of the in- A nd outflow properties of CONs should also be conducted to investigate how these are connected to each other and to the CON phenomenon. The lower f25/f60 ratios in CONs as well as the results for the mid-infrared diagnostics investigated (EQW6.2 μm and s9.7 μm) are consistent with the notion that large dust columns gradually shift the radiation from the hot nucleus to longer wavelengths, making the mid- A nd far-infrared "photospheres"significantly cooler than the interior regions. Finally, to assess the importance of CONs in the context of galaxy evolution, it is necessary to extend this study to higher redshifts where (U)LIRGs are more common.
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3.
  • Aalto, Susanne, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • The hidden heart of the luminous infrared galaxy IC 860: I. A molecular inflow feeding opaque, extreme nuclear activity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-resolution (0.'03-0.'09 (9-26 pc)) ALMA (100-350 GHz (λ3 to 0.8 mm)) and (0.'04 (11 pc)) VLA 45 GHz measurements have been used to image continuum and spectral line emission from the inner (100 pc) region of the nearby infrared luminous galaxy IC 860. We detect compact (r ∼ 10 pc), luminous, 3 to 0.8 mm continuum emission in the core of IC 860, with brightness temperatures TB > 160 K. The 45 GHz continuum is equally compact but significantly fainter in flux. We suggest that the 3 to 0.8 mm continuum emerges from hot dust with radius r ∼ 8 pc and temperature Td ∼ 280 K, and that it is opaque at millimetre wavelengths, implying a very large H2 column density N(H2)≥ 1026 cm-2. Vibrationally excited lines of HCN v2 = 1f J = 4 - 3 and 3-2 (HCN-VIB) are seen in emission and spatially resolved on scales of 40-50 pc. The line-to-continuum ratio drops towards the inner r = 4 pc, resulting in a ring-like morphology. This may be due to high opacities and matching HCN-VIB excitation- and continuum temperatures. The HCN-VIB emission reveals a north-south nuclear velocity gradient with projected rotation velocities of v = 100 km s-1 at r = 10 pc. The brightest emission is oriented perpendicular to the velocity gradient, with a peak HCN-VIB 3-2 TB of 115 K (above the continuum). Vibrational ground-state lines of HCN 3-2 and 4-3, HC15N 4-3, HCO+ 3-2 and 4-3, and CS 7-6 show complex line absorption and emission features towards the dusty nucleus. Redshifted, reversed P-Cygni profiles are seen for HCN and HCO+ consistent with gas inflow with vin ≤ 50 km s-1. Foreground absorption structures outline the flow, and can be traced from the north-east into the nucleus. In contrast, CS 7-6 has blueshifted line profiles with line wings extending out to -180 km s-1. We suggest that a dense and slow outflow is hidden behind a foreground layer of obscuring, inflowing gas. The centre of IC 860 is in a phase of rapid evolution where an inflow is building up a massive nuclear column density of gas and dust that feeds star formation and/or AGN activity. The slow, dense outflow may be signaling the onset of feedback. The inner, r = 10 pc, IR luminosity may be powered by an AGN or a compact starburst, which then would likely require a top-heavy initial mass function.
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4.
  • Falstad, Niklas, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Hidden or missing outflows in highly obscured galaxy nuclei?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the nuclear growth and feedback processes in galaxies requires investigating their often obscured central regions. One way to do this is to use (sub)millimeter line emission from vibrationally excited HCN (HCN-vib), which is thought to trace warm and highly enshrouded galaxy nuclei. It has been suggested that the most intense HCN-vib emission from a galaxy is connected to a phase of nuclear growth that occurs before the nuclear feedback processes have been fully developed. Aims. We aim to investigate if there is a connection between the presence of strong HCN-vib emission and the development of feedback in (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs). Methods. We collected literature and archival data to compare the luminosities of rotational lines of HCN-vib, normalized to the total infrared luminosity, to the median velocities of 119 μm OH absorption lines, potentially indicating outflows, in a total of 17 (U)LIRGs. Results. The most HCN-vib luminous systems all lack signatures of significant molecular outflows in the far-infrared OH absorption lines. However, at least some of the systems with bright HCN-vib emission have fast and collimated outflows that can be seen in spectral lines at longer wavelengths, including in millimeter emission lines of CO and HCN (in its vibrational ground state) and in radio absorption lines of OH. Conclusions. We conclude that the galaxy nuclei with the highest L HCN-vib /L IR do not drive wide-angle outflows that are detectable using the median velocities of far-infrared OH absorption lines. This is possibly because of an orientation effect in which sources oriented in such a way that their outflows are not along our line of sight also radiate a smaller proportion of their infrared luminosity in our direction. It could also be that massive wide-angle outflows destroy the deeply embedded regions responsible for bright HCN-vib emission, so that the two phenomena cannot coexist. This would strengthen the idea that vibrationally excited HCN traces a heavily obscured stage of evolution before nuclear feedback mechanisms are fully developed.
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5.
  • Kramer, C., et al. (författare)
  • PACS and SPIRE photometer maps of M33: First results of the HERschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Within the framework of the HERM33ES key program, we are studying the star forming interstellar medium in the nearby, metal-poor spiral galaxy M33, exploiting the high resolution and sensitivity of Herschel. Aims. We use PACS and SPIRE maps at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 mu m wavelength, to study the variation of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with galacto-centric distance. Methods. Detailed SED modeling is performed using azimuthally averaged fluxes in elliptical rings of 2 kpc width, out to 8 kpc galacto-centric distance. Simple isothermal and two-component grey body models, with fixed dust emissivity index, are fitted to the SEDs between 24 mu m and 500 mu m using also MIPS/Spitzer data, to derive first estimates of the dust physical conditions. Results. The far-infrared and submillimeter maps reveal the branched, knotted spiral structure of M33. An underlying diffuse disk is seen in all SPIRE maps (250-500 mu m). Two component fits to the SEDs agree better than isothermal models with the observed, total and radially averaged flux densities. The two component model, with beta fixed at 1.5, best fits the global and the radial SEDs. The cold dust component clearly dominates; the relative mass of the warm component is less than 0.3% for all the fits. The temperature of the warm component is not well constrained and is found to be about 60 K +/- 10 K. The temperature of the cold component drops significantly from similar to 24 K in the inner 2 kpc radius to 13 K beyond 6 kpc radial distance, for the best fitting model. The gas-to-dust ratio for beta = 1.5, averaged over the galaxy, is higher than the solar value by a factor of 1.5 and is roughly in agreement with the subsolar metallicity of M33.
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6.
  • Krips, M., et al. (författare)
  • ACA CI observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 592:L3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Carbon monoxide (CO) is widely used as a tracer of the molecular gas in almost all types of environments. However, several shortcomings of CO complicate usaging it as H-2 tracer, such as its optical depth effects, the dependence of its abundance on metallicity, or its susceptibility to dissociation in highly irradiated regions. Neutral carbon emission has been proposed to overcome some of these shortcomings and hence to help revealing the limits of CO as a measure of the molecular gas. Aims. We aim to study the general characteristics of the spatially and spectrally resolved carbon line emission in a variety of extragalactic sources and evaluate its potential as complementary H-2 tracer to CO. Methods. We used the Atacama Compact Array to map the [CI](P-3(1)-P-3(0)) line emission in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 at unprecedented angular resolution (similar to 3 ''). This is the first well-resolved interferometric [CI] map of an extragalactic source. Results. We have detected the [CI] line emission at high significance levels along the central disk of NGC 253 and its edges where expanding shells have previously been found in CO. Globally, the distribution of the [CI] line emission strongly resembles that of CO, confirming the results of previous Galactic surveys that [CI] traces the same molecular gas as CO. However, we also identify a significant increase of [CI] line emission with respect to CO in (some of) the outflow or shocked regions of NGC 253, namely the bipolar outflow emerging from the nucleus. A first-order estimate of the [CI] column densities indicates abundances of [CI] that are very similar to the abundance of CO in NGC 253. Interestingly, we find that the [CI] line is marginally optically thick within the disk. Conclusions. The enhancement of the [CI]/CO line ratios (similar to 0.4-0.6) with respect to Galactic values (
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7.
  • Mookerjea, B., et al. (författare)
  • The Herschel M 33 extended survey (HerM33es): PACS spectroscopy of the star-forming region BCLMP 302
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 532, s. art. no. A152-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The emission line of [CII] at 158 mu m is one of the strongest cooling lines of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies. Aims. Distinguishing the relative contributions of the different ISM phases to [CII] emission is a major objective of the HerM33es program, a Herschel key project to study the ISM in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33. Methods. Using PACS, we have mapped the emission of [CII] 158 mu m, [OI] 63 mu m, and other FIR lines in a 2' x 2' region of the northern spiral arm of M 33, centered on the HII region BCLMP302. At the peak of Ha emission, we observed in addition a velocity-resolved [CII] spectrum using HIFI. We use scatterplots to compare these data with PACS 160 mu m continuum maps, and with maps of CO and HI data, at a common resolution of 12 '' or 50 pc. Maps of Ha and 24 mu m emission observed with Spitzer are used to estimate the SFR. We created maps of the [CII] and [OI] 63 mu m emission and detected [NII] 122 mu m and [NIII] 57 mu m at individual positions. Results. The [CII] line observed with HIFI is significantly broader than that of CO, and slightly blue-shifted. In addition, there is little spatial correlation between [CII] observed with PACS and CO over the mapped region. There is even less spatial correlation between [CII] and the atomic gas traced by HI. Detailed comparison of the observed intensities towards the HII region with models of photo-ionization and photon-dominated regions, confirms that a significant fraction, 20-30%, of the observed [CII] emission stems from the ionized gas and not from the molecular cloud. The gas heating efficiency, using the ratio of [CII] to the TIR as a proxy, varies between 0.07 and 1.5%, with the largest variations found outside the HII region.
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8.
  • Aalto, Susanne, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Probing highly obscured, self-absorbed galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present high resolution (0.'' 4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS 17208-0014, Arp220, IC 860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (nu(2) = 1) J = 3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r 5 x 10(13) L-circle dot kpc(-2). These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, nu(2) = 1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 mu m mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses, and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H-2 column densities exceed 10(24) cm(-2). It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, we show strong evidence that the ground vibrational state (. = 0), J = 3-2 and 4-3 rotational lines of HCN and HCO+ fail to probe the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions owing to strong self-and continuum absorption. The HCN and HCO+ line profiles are double-peaked because of the absorption and show evidence of non-circular motions-possibly in the form of in-or outflows. Detections of vibrationally excited HCN in external galaxies are so far limited to ULIRGs and early-type spiral LIRGs, and we discuss possible causes for this. We tentatively suggest that the peak of vibrationally excited HCN emission is connected to a rapid stage of nuclear growth, before the phase of strong feedback.
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9.
  • Bulut, N., et al. (författare)
  • Gas phase Elemental abundances in Molecular cloudS (GEMS): III. Unlocking the CS chemistry: The CS+O reaction
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Carbon monosulphide (CS) is among the most abundant gas-phase S-bearing molecules in cold dark molecular clouds. It is easily observable with several transitions in the millimeter wavelength range, and has been widely used as a tracer of the gas density in the interstellar medium in our Galaxy and external galaxies. However, chemical models fail to account for the observed CS abundances when assuming the cosmic value for the elemental abundance of sulfur. Aims. The CS+O → CO + S reaction has been proposed as a relevant CS destruction mechanism at low temperatures, and could explain the discrepancy between models and observations. Its reaction rate has been experimentally measured at temperatures of 150-400 K, but the extrapolation to lower temperatures is doubtful. Our goal is to calculate the CS+O reaction rate at temperatures <150 K which are prevailing in the interstellar medium. Methods. We performed ab initio calculations to obtain the three lowest potential energy surfaces (PES) of the CS+O system. These PESs are used to study the reaction dynamics, using several methods (classical, quantum, and semiclassical) to eventually calculate the CS + O thermal reaction rates. In order to check the accuracy of our calculations, we compare the results of our theoretical calculations for T ~ 150-400 K with those obtained in the laboratory. Results. Our detailed theoretical study on the CS+O reaction, which is in agreement with the experimental data obtained at 150-400 K, demonstrates the reliability of our approach. After a careful analysis at lower temperatures, we find that the rate constant at 10 K is negligible, below 10-15 cm s-1, which is consistent with the extrapolation of experimental data using the Arrhenius expression. Conclusions. We use the updated chemical network to model the sulfur chemistry in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC 1) based on molecular abundances determined from Gas phase Elemental abundances in Molecular CloudS (GEMS) project observations. In our model, we take into account the expected decrease of the cosmic ray ionization rate, ζH2, along the cloud. The abundance of CS is still overestimated when assuming the cosmic value for the sulfur abundance.
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10.
  • Rodríguez-Baras, M., et al. (författare)
  • Gas phase Elemental abundances in Molecular cloudS (GEMS): IV. Observational results and statistical trends
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gas phase Elemental abundances in Molecular CloudS (GEMS) is an IRAM 30 m Large Program designed to provide estimates of the S, C, N, and O depletions and gas ionization degree, X(e-), in a selected set of star-forming filaments of Taurus, Perseus, and Orion. Our immediate goal is to build up a complete and large database of molecular abundances that can serve as an observational basis for estimating X(e-) and the C, O, N, and S depletions through chemical modeling. We observed and derived the abundances of 14 species (13CO, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, HC18O+, HCN, H13CN, HNC, HCS+, CS, SO, 34SO, H2S, and OCS) in 244 positions, covering the AV ~3 to ~100 mag, n(H2) ~ a few 103 to 106 cm-3, and Tk ~10 to ~30 K ranges in these clouds, and avoiding protostars, HII regions, and bipolar outflows. A statistical analysis is carried out in order to identify general trends between different species and with physical parameters. Relations between molecules reveal strong linear correlations which define three different families of species: (1) 13CO and C18O isotopologs; (2) H13CO+, HC18O+, H13 CN, and HNC; and (3) the S-bearing molecules. The abundances of the CO isotopologs increase with the gas kinetic temperature until TK ~ 15 K. For higher temperatures, the abundance remains constant with a scatter of a factor of ~3. The abundances of H13 CO+, HC18 O+, H13 CN, and HNC are well correlated with each other, and all of them decrease with molecular hydrogen density, following the law ∝ n(H2)-0.8  ±  0.2. The abundances of S-bearing species also decrease with molecular hydrogen density at a rate of (S-bearing/H)gas ∝ n(H2)-0.6  ±  0.1. The abundances of molecules belonging to groups 2 and 3 do not present any clear trend with gas temperature. At scales of molecular clouds, the C18O abundance is the quantity that better correlates with the cloud mass. We discuss the utility of the 13CO/C18O, HCO+/H13CO+, and H13 CO+/H13CN abundance ratios as chemical diagnostics of star formation in external galaxies.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 42
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