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1.
  • Griffin, M. J., et al. (författare)
  • The Herschel-SPIRE instrument and its in-flight performance
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE), is the Herschel Space Observatory`s submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It contains a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 mu m, and an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which covers simultaneously its whole operating range of 194-671 mu m (447-1550 GHz). The SPIRE detectors are arrays of feedhorn-coupled bolometers cooled to 0.3 K. The photometer has a field of view of 4' x 8', observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands. Its main operating mode is scan-mapping, whereby the field of view is scanned across the sky to achieve full spatial sampling and to cover large areas if desired. The spectrometer has an approximately circular field of view with a diameter of 2.6'. The spectral resolution can be adjusted between 1.2 and 25 GHz by changing the stroke length of the FTS scan mirror. Its main operating mode involves a fixed telescope pointing with multiple scans of the FTS mirror to acquire spectral data. For extended source measurements, multiple position offsets are implemented by means of an internal beam steering mirror to achieve the desired spatial sampling and by rastering of the telescope pointing to map areas larger than the field of view. The SPIRE instrument consists of a cold focal plane unit located inside the Herschel cryostat and warm electronics units, located on the spacecraft Service Module, for instrument control and data handling. Science data are transmitted to Earth with no on-board data compression, and processed by automatic pipelines to produce calibrated science products. The in-flight performance of the instrument matches or exceeds predictions based on pre-launch testing and modelling: the photometer sensitivity is comparable to or slightly better than estimated pre-launch, and the spectrometer sensitivity is also better by a factor of 1.5-2.</p>
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2.
  • Marconi, A., et al. (författare)
  • EELT-HIRES the high-resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY VI. - 978-1-5106-0196-3
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The first generation of E-ELT instruments will include an optical infrared High Resolution Spectrograph, conventionally indicated as EELT-HIRES, which will be capable of providing unique breakthroughs in the fields of exoplanets, star and planet formation, physics and evolution of stars and galaxies, cosmology and fundamental physics. A 2-year long phase A study for EELT-HIRES has just started and will be performed by a consortium composed of institutes and organisations from Brazil, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. In this paper we describe the science goals and the preliminary technical concept for EELT-HIRES which will be developed during the phase A, as well as its planned development and consortium organisation during the study.</p>
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3.
  • Marconi, A., et al. (författare)
  • ELT-HIRES, the high resolution spectrograph for the ELT : results from the Phase A study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY VII. - SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. - 978-1-5106-1958-6
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We present the results from the phase A study of ELT-HIRES, an optical-infrared High Resolution Spectrograph for ELT, which has just been completed by a consortium of 30 institutes from 12 countries forming a team of about 200 scientists and engineers. The top science cases of ELT-HIRES will be the detection of life signatures from exoplanet atmospheres, tests on the stability of Nature's fundamental couplings, the direct detection of the cosmic acceleration. However, the science requirements of these science cases enable many other groundbreaking science cases. The baseline design, which allows to fulfil the top science cases, consists in a modular fiber fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph with two ultra-stable spectral arms providing a simultaneous spectral range of 0.4-1.8 pm at a spectral resolution of 100, 000. The fiber-feeding allows ELT-HIRES to have several, interchangeable observing modes including a SCAO module and a small diffraction-limited IFU.</p>
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4.
  • Allen, D. B., et al. (författare)
  • GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 174:2, s. P1-P9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.
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5.
  • Johannsson, G., et al. (författare)
  • Improved Cortisol Exposure-Time Profile and Outcome in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency : A Prospective Randomized Trial of a Novel Hydrocortisone Dual-Release Formulation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 97:2, s. 473-481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context: Patients with treated adrenal insufficiency (AI) have increased morbidity and mortality rate. Our goal was to improve outcome by developing a once-daily (OD) oral hydrocortisone dual-release tablet with a more physiological exposure-time cortisol profile.</p><p>Objective: The aim was to compare pharmacokinetics and metabolic outcome between OD and the same daily dose of thrice-daily (TID) dose of conventional hydrocortisone tablets. Design and Setting: We conducted an open, randomized, two-period, 12-wk crossover multicenter trial with a 24-wk extension at five university hospital centers.</p><p>Patients: The trial enrolled 64 adults with primary AI; 11 had concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Intervention: The same daily dose of hydrocortisone was administered as OD dual-release or TID. Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated cortisol pharmacokinetics.</p><p>Results: Compared with conventional TID, OD provided a sustained serum cortisol profile 0-4 h after the morning intake and reduced the late afternoon and the 24-h cortisol exposure. The mean weight (difference = -0.7kg, P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure(difference = -5.5 mm Hg, P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (difference: -2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and glycated hemoglobin (absolute difference = -0.1%, P = 0.0006) were all reduced after OD compared with TID at 12 wk. Compared with TID, a reduction in glycated hemoglobin by 0.6% was observed in patients with concomitant DM during OD (P = 0.004).</p><p>Conclusion: The OD dual-release tablet provided a more circadian-based serum cortisol profile. Reduced body weight, reduced blood pressure, and improved glucose metabolism were observed during OD treatment. In particular, glucose metabolism improved in patients with concomitant DM.</p>
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6.
  • Johansson, G., et al. (författare)
  • Improved cortisol exposure-time profile and outcome in patients with adrenal insufficiency : a prospective randomised trial of a novel hydrocortisone dual-release formulation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - The Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 97:2, s. 473-481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context: Patients with treated adrenal insufficiency (AI) have increased morbidity and mortality rate. Our goal was to improve outcome by developing a once-daily (OD) oral hydrocortisone dual-release tablet with a more physiological exposure-time cortisol profile.</p><p>Objective: The aim was to compare pharmacokinetics and metabolic outcome between OD and the same daily dose of thrice-daily (TID) dose of conventional hydrocortisone tablets.</p><p>Design and Setting: We conducted an open, randomized, two-period, 12-wk crossover multicenter trial with a 24-wk extension at five university hospital centers.</p><p>Patients: The trial enrolled 64 adults with primary AI; 11 had concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM).</p><p>Intervention: The same daily dose of hydrocortisone was administered as OD dual-release or TID.</p><p>Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated cortisol pharmacokinetics.</p><p>Results: Compared with conventional TID, OD provided a sustained serum cortisol profile 0-4 h after the morning intake and reduced the late afternoon and the 24-h cortisol exposure. The mean weight (difference = -0.7 kg, P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (difference = -5.5 mm Hg, P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (difference: -2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and glycated hemoglobin (absolute difference = -0.1%, P = 0.0006) were all reduced after OD compared with TID at 12 wk. Compared with TID, a reduction in glycated hemoglobin by 0.6% was observed in patients with concomitant DM during OD (P = 0.004).</p><p>Conclusion: The OD dual-release tablet provided a more circadian-based serum cortisol profile. Reduced body weight, reduced blood pressure, and improved glucose metabolism were observed during OD treatment. In particular, glucose metabolism improved in patients with concomitant DM.</p>
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7.
  • Alping, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk for Fingolimod, Natalizumab, and Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0364-5134. ; 87:5, s. 688-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Novel, highly effective disease-modifying therapies have revolutionized multiple sclerosis (MS) care. However, evidence from large comparative studies on important safety outcomes, such as cancer, is still lacking. Methods: In this nationwide register-based cohort study, we linked data from the Swedish MS register to the Swedish Cancer Register and other national health care and census registers. We included 4,187 first-ever initiations of rituximab, 1,620 of fingolimod, and 1,670 of natalizumab in 6,136 MS patients matched for age, sex, and location to 37,801 non-MS general population subjects. Primary outcome was time to first invasive cancer. Results: We identified 78 invasive cancers among treated patients: rituximab 33 (incidence rate [IR] per 10,000 person-years = 34.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–48.3), fingolimod 28 (IR = 44.0, 95% CI = 29.2–63.5), and natalizumab 17 (IR = 26.0, 95% CI = 15.1–41.6). The general population IR was 31.0 (95% CI = 27.8–34.4). Adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no difference in risk of invasive cancer between rituximab, natalizumab, and the general population but a possibly higher risk with fingolimod compared to the general population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.98–2.38) and rituximab (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00–2.84). Interpretation: In this first large comparative study of 3 highly effective MS disease-modifying therapies, no increased risk of invasive cancer was seen with rituximab and natalizumab, compared to the general population. However, there was a borderline-significant increased risk with fingolimod, compared to both the general population and rituximab. It was not possible to attribute this increased risk to any specific type of cancer, and further studies are warranted to validate these findings.
8.
  • Bengtsson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Corticotroph Pituitary Carcinoma in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome (LS) and Pituitary Tumors in a Nationwide LS Cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 102:11, s. 3928-3932
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Patients are at high risk for several types of cancer, but pituitary tumors have not previously been reported.Case: A 51-year-old man with LS (MSH2 mutation) and a history of colon carcinoma presented with severe Cushing disease and a locally aggressive pituitary tumor. The tumor harbored a mutation consistent with the patient's germline mutation and displayed defect MMR function. Sixteen months later, the tumor had developed into a carcinoma with widespread liver metastases. The patient prompted us to perform a nationwide study in LS.Nationwide Study: A diagnosis consistent with a pituitary tumor was sought for in the Swedish National Patient Registry. In 910 patients with LS, representing all known cases in Sweden, another two clinically relevant pituitary tumors were found: an invasive nonsecreting macroadenoma and a microprolactinoma (i.e., in total three tumors vs. one expected).Conclusion: Germline mutations in MMR genes may contribute to the development and/or the clinical course of pituitary tumors. Because tumors with MMR mutations are susceptible to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, we suggest to actively ask for a family history of LS in the workup of patients with aggressive pituitary tumors.
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9.
  • Bäcklund, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Reference intervals of salivary cortisol and cortisone and their diagnostic accuracy in Cushing's syndrome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European journal of endocrinology. - Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 182:6, s. 569-582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The challenge of diagnosing Cushing's syndrome (CS) calls for high precision biochemical screening. This study aimed to establish robust reference intervals for, and compare the diagnostic accuracy of, salivary cortisol and cortisone in late-night samples and after a low-dose (1 mg) dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Design and methods: Saliva samples were collected at 08:00 and 23:00 h, and at 08:00 h, after a DST, from 22 patients with CS and from 155 adult reference subjects. We also collected samples at 20:00 and 22:00 h from 78 of the reference subjects. Salivary cortisol and cortisone were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The reference intervals were calculated as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the reference population measurements. Diagnostic accuracies of different tests were compared, based on areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: The upper reference limits of salivary cortisol and cortisone at 23:00 h were 3.6 nmol/L and 13.5 nmol/L, respectively. Using these reference limits, CS was detected with a sensitivity (95% CI) of 90% (70-99%) and specificity of 96% (91-98%) for cortisol, and a 100% (84-100%) sensitivity and 95% (90-98%) specificity for cortisone. After DST, cortisol and cortisone upper reference limits were 0.79 nmol/L and 3.5 nmol/L, respectively. CS was detected with 95% (75-100%) sensitivity and 96% (92-99%) specificity with cortisol, and 100% (83-100%) sensitivity and 94% (89-97%) specificity with cortisone. No differences in salivary cortisol or cortisone levels were found between samples collected at 22:00 and 23:00 h. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol and cortisone in late-night samples and after DST showed high accuracy for diagnosing CS, salivary cortisone being slightly, but significantly better.
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10.
  • Johannsson, G, et al. (författare)
  • Improved Cortisol Exposure-Time Profile and Outcome in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency: A Prospective Randomized Trial of a Novel Hydrocortisone Dual-Release Formulation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 97:2, s. 473-481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context:Patients with treated adrenal insufficiency (AI) have increased morbidity and mortality rate. Our goal was to improve outcome by developing a once-daily (OD) oral hydrocortisone dual-release tablet with a more physiological exposure-time cortisol profile.Objective:The aim was to compare pharmacokinetics and metabolic outcome between OD and the same daily dose of thrice-daily (TID) dose of conventional hydrocortisone tablets.Design and Setting:We conducted an open, randomized, two-period, 12-wk crossover multicenter trial with a 24-wk extension at five university hospital centers.Patients:The trial enrolled 64 adults with primary AI; 11 had concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM).Intervention:The same daily dose of hydrocortisone was administered as OD dual-release or TID.Main Outcome Measure:We evaluated cortisol pharmacokinetics.Results:Compared with conventional TID, OD provided a sustained serum cortisol profile 0-4 h after the morning intake and reduced the late afternoon and the 24-h cortisol exposure. The mean weight (difference = -0.7 kg, P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (difference = -5.5 mm Hg, P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (difference: -2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and glycated hemoglobin (absolute difference = -0.1%, P = 0.0006) were all reduced after OD compared with TID at 12 wk. Compared with TID, a reduction in glycated hemoglobin by 0.6% was observed in patients with concomitant DM during OD (P = 0.004).Conclusion:The OD dual-release tablet provided a more circadian-based serum cortisol profile. Reduced body weight, reduced blood pressure, and improved glucose metabolism were observed during OD treatment. In particular, glucose metabolism improved in patients with concomitant DM.
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