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1.
  • Kaput, Jim, et al. (författare)
  • Planning the human variome project: the Spain report.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794. ; 30:4, s. 496-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The remarkable progress in characterizing the human genome sequence, exemplified by the Human Genome Project and the HapMap Consortium, has led to the perception that knowledge and the tools (e.g., microarrays) are sufficient for many if not most biomedical research efforts. A large amount of data from diverse studies proves this perception inaccurate at best, and at worst, an impediment for further efforts to characterize the variation in the human genome. Because variation in genotype and environment are the fundamental basis to understand phenotypic variability and heritability at the population level, identifying the range of human genetic variation is crucial to the development of personalized nutrition and medicine. The Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org/) was proposed initially to systematically collect mutations that cause human disease and create a cyber infrastructure to link locus specific databases (LSDB). We report here the discussions and recommendations from the 2008 HVP planning meeting held in San Feliu de Guixols, Spain, in May 2008.
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2.
  • Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J, et al. (författare)
  • How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 31:12, s. 1374-1381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium.
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4.
  • Duncan, Gordon W, et al. (författare)
  • Gray and white matter imaging : A biomarker for cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease?
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 31:1, s. 10-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to investigate the cortical and white matter changes that underlie cognitive impairment in patients with incident Parkinson's disease (PD) disease using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.METHODS: Newly diagnosed nondemented PD (n = 125) and control subjects (n = 50) were recruited from the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease Study and completed cognitive assessments and 3T structural and diffusion tensor MR imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate the relationship between gray matter volume and cognitive ability. Microstructural white matter changes were assessed with diffusion tensor imaging measures of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity using tract-based spatial statistics.RESULTS: Increased mean diffusivity was observed bilaterally in subjects with PD, relative to controls (P = 0.019). Increased mean diffusivity was associated with performance on the semantic fluency and Tower of London tasks in frontal and parietal white matter tracts, including the cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. There was no difference in total gray matter volume between groups; however, bilateral reductions in frontal and parietal gray matter volume were associated with reduced performance on measures of executive function in PD subjects.CONCLUSIONS: At the earliest stages of PD, regionally specific increases in central white matter mean diffusivity are present and suggest early axonal damage. Such changes are not accompanied by significant gray matter volume loss and are consistent with proposed models of pathological progression of the disease. Structural MRI, especially diffusion tensor imaging analysis, offers potential as a noninvasive biomarker reflecting cognitive impairment in PD.
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5.
  • Duncan, Gordon W, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life in early Parkinson's disease : the impact of nonmotor symptoms
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 29:2, s. 195-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are common in patients with established Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a major impact upon quality of life. We investigated the significance of NMS in relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with newly diagnosed PD. Patients and healthy controls were recruited as part of the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease Study. Prevalence of NMS was determined with the Non-Motor Symptom Questionnaire. HRQoL was recorded with the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Further assessments included measures of motor disability, depression, sleep, and cognition. One hundred and fifty-eight patients with newly diagnosed PD and 99 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Patients reported greater numbers of NMS than controls (mean 8.3 ± 4.3 versus 2.8 ± 2.5 symptoms; P < 0.001). Patients reported lowest HRQoL in the domains assessing bodily discomfort, mobility, and activities of daily living. Motor and nonmotor symptoms impacted negatively upon HRQoL scores. Patients with the postural instability and gait difficulty motor subtype reported worse HRQoL, compared with those with tremor-dominant disease. Depression (P < 0.001), incomplete bowel emptying (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), impaired concentration (P < 0.001), memory complaints (P < 0.001), and insomnia (P = 0.001) had the greatest negative impact upon HRQoL. NMS are common in patients with early PD and represent a significant cause of poorer health-related quality of life. Cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and sleep disturbances are particularly associated with reduced well-being. Screening and management of these symptoms should be prioritized at the time of diagnosis.
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6.
  • Duncan, Gordon William, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Parkinson's disease in the North-East of England
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - : Oxford University Press. - 1468-2834. ; 43:2, s. 63-257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a common disorder among older people. Accurate epidemiological information is essential to identify possible aetiological factors, plan health services and set priorities for medical research.OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease in a defined geographical area in the North-East of England.METHODS: using a prospective, longitudinal design, we sought to identify every new case of Parkinson's disease arising in the Newcastle and Gateshead area in the North-East of England. The base population comprised 488 576 individuals and multiple sources of case ascertainment were employed. All the patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson's disease or parkinsonism between 1 June 2009 and 31 May 2011 were invited to participate. Patients were examined by a specialist and followed longitudinally to permit diagnostic review.RESULTS: we identified 257 potential cases, of whom 181 had suspected idiopathic Parkinson's disease. After a follow-up period of 18 months, 155 patients retained a clinical diagnosis of probable Parkinson's disease. The mean age at diagnosis was 72.4 ± 10 years. The crude incidence of PD in Newcastle and Gateshead was 15.9 per 100 000 persons per year (95% CI: 13.4-18.4). Age-standardised to the European population the incidence of Parkinson's disease was 12.0 per 100 000 (95% CI: 10.1-14.0). We found a higher crude incidence among men 17.7 per 100 000 (95% CI: 14.0-21.4) than women 14.0 per 100 000 (95% CI: 10.7-17.4).CONCLUSION: in this prospective longitudinal study, the incidence rate of Parkinson's disease in North-East England is similar to that of other modern European and American studies.
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7.
  • Lawson, Rachael A, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive decline and quality of life in incident Parkinson's disease : The role of attention
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1873-5126. ; 27, s. 47-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is associated with poorer quality of life (QoL). Prior to the onset of PDD, many patients experience progressive cognitive impairment. There is a paucity of longitudinal studies investigating the effects of cognitive decline on QoL. This study aimed to determine the longitudinal impact of cognitive change on QoL in an incident PD cohort.METHODS: Recently diagnosed patients with PD (n = 212) completed a schedule of neuropsychological assessments and QoL measures; these were repeated after 18 (n = 190) and 36 months (n = 158). Mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) was classified with reference to the Movement Disorder Society criteria. Principal component analysis was used to reduce 10 neuropsychological tests to three cognitive factors: attention, memory/executive function, and global cognition.RESULTS: Baseline PD-MCI was a significant contributor to QoL (β = 0.2, p < 0.01). For those subjects (9%) who developed dementia, cognitive function had a much greater impact on QoL (β = 10.3, p < 0.05). Multivariate modelling showed attentional deficits had the strongest predictive power (β = -2.3, p < 0.01); brief global tests only modestly predicted decline in QoL (β = -0.4, p < 0.01).CONCLUSIONS: PD-MCI was associated with poorer QoL over three years follow up. Cognitive impairment had a greater impact on QoL in individuals who developed dementia over follow-up. Impaired attention was a significant determinant of QoL in PD. Interventions which improve concentration and attention in those with PD could potentially improve QoL.
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8.
  • Lawson, Rachael A, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life and mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease : does subtype matter?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1877-718X. ; 4:3, s. 6-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes and quality of life (QoL) in 219 newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia. Participants completed neuropsychological tests of attention, executive function, visuospatial function, memory, and language, and reported QoL using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. Impairments were most common in executive function, memory and attention. MCI subtypes were classified according to Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria. More severe cognitive impairment was associated with poorer quality of life (p = 0.01), but subtype of impairment was not (p > 0.10), suggesting that the nature of cognitive impairment is less significant than its severity.
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9.
  • Lawson, Rachael A, et al. (författare)
  • Severity of mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease contributes to poorer quality of life
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1873-5126. ; 20:10, s. 5-1071
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Poor quality of life (QoL) is a feature of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) who develop dementia. The relationship between mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI) and QoL is less clear. To address this, we studied the impact of varying severities of cognitive impairment on QoL in a cohort of non-demented patients with early PD.METHOD: Patients with newly diagnosed PD (n = 219) and age and sex matched healthy controls (n = 99) completed a schedule of neuropsychological tests, in addition to scales assessing QoL (PDQ-39), depression, sleep, neuropsychiatric symptoms and a clinical examination. The Movement Disorder Society criteria were used to define and classify PD-MCI.RESULTS: Participants with PD-MCI were significantly older than those with normal cognition, had more severe motor symptoms, scored higher for depression and had poorer quality of life. Logistic regression showed that mild cognitive impairment, independent of other factors, was an indicator of poorer QoL. Using cognitive performance 2.0 standard deviations (SD) below normative data as a cut-off to define PD-MCI, there was a significant difference in QoL scores between patients with PD-MCI and those classified as having normal cognition. Subjects with less severe mild cognitive impairment did not exhibit significant differences in QoL.CONCLUSIONS: PD-MCI is a significant, independent factor contributing to poorer QoL in patients with newly diagnosed PD. Those classified with greatest impairment (2.0 SD below normal values) have lower QoL. This has implications for clinical practice and future interventions targeting cognitive impairments.
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10.
  • Mak, Elijah, et al. (författare)
  • Baseline and longitudinal grey matter changes in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease : ICICLE-PD study
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2156. ; 138:Pt 10, s. 86-2974
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is associated with progression to dementia (Parkinson's disease dementia) in a majority of patients. Determining structural imaging biomarkers associated with prodromal Parkinson's disease dementia may allow for the earlier identification of those at risk, and allow for targeted disease modifying therapies. One hundred and five non-demented subjects with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 37 healthy matched controls had serial 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans with clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, which were repeated after 18 months. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria were used to classify the Parkinson's disease subjects into Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (n = 39) and Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment (n = 66). Freesurfer image processing software was used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes at baseline and follow-up. We compared regional percentage change of cortical thinning and subcortical atrophy over 18 months. At baseline, cases with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated widespread cortical thinning relative to controls and atrophy of the nucleus accumbens compared to both controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment. Regional cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with global cognition in the combined Parkinson's disease cohort. Over 18 months, patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated more severe cortical thinning in frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, including hippocampal atrophy, relative to those with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment and healthy controls, whereas subjects with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment showed more severe frontal cortical thinning compared to healthy controls. At baseline, Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment converters showed bilateral temporal cortex thinning relative to the Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment stable subjects. Although loss of both cortical and subcortical volume occurs in non-demented Parkinson's disease, our longitudinal analyses revealed that Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment shows more extensive atrophy and greater percentage of cortical thinning compared to Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment. In particular, an extension of cortical thinning in the temporo-parietal regions in addition to frontal atrophy could be a biomarker in therapeutic studies of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease for progression towards dementia.
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