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Sökning: WFRF:(Buse John B)

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1.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley Open Access. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
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2.
  • Ahren, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety of liraglutide added to capped insulin treatment in subjects with type 1 diabetes : The adjunct two randomized trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 39:10, s. 1693-1701
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and safety of liraglutide added to capped insulin doses in subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A 26-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial enrolling 835 subjects randomized 3:1 receiving once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (1.8, 1.2, and 0.6 mg) or placebo added to an individually capped total daily dose of insulin. RESULTS Mean baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) (8.1% [65.0 mmol/mol]) was significantly decreased with liraglutide versus placebo at week 26 (1.8 mg: -0.33% [3.6mmol/mol]; 1.2mg: -0.22% [2.4mmol/mol]; 0.6 mg: -0.23% [2.5mmol/mol]; placebo: 0.01% [0.1 mmol/mol]). Liraglutide significantly reduced mean body weight (-5.1, -4.0, and -2.5 kg for 1.8, 1.2, and 0.6 mg, respectively) versus placebo (-0.2 kg). Significant reductions in daily insulin dose and increases in quality of life were seen with liraglutide versus placebo. There were higher rates of symptomatic hypoglycemia (21.3 vs. 16.6 events/patient/year; P = 0.03) with liraglutide 1.2mg vs. placebo and of hyperglycemia with ketosis >1.5mmol/L with liraglutide 1.8 mg vs. placebo (0.5 vs. 0.1 events/patient/year; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In a broad population of subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes, liraglutide added to capped insulin reduced HbA1c, body weight, and insulin requirements but with higher rates of hypoglycemia for liraglutide 1.2 mg and hyperglycemia with ketosis for liraglutide 1.8 mg.
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3.
  • Holman, Rury R., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Nateglinide on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1463-1476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive nateglinide (up to 60 mg three times daily) or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo, in addition to participation in a lifestyle modification program. We followed the participants for a median of 5.0 years for incident diabetes (and a median of 6.5 years for vital status). We evaluated the effect of nateglinide on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; a core cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure; and an extended cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of the individual components of the core composite cardiovascular outcome, hospitalization for unstable angina, or arterial revascularization. RESULTS After adjustment for multiple testing, nateglinide, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of diabetes (36% and 34%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.15; P = 0.05), the core composite cardiovascular outcome (7.9% and 8.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.09; P = 0.43), or the extended composite cardiovascular outcome (14.2% and 15.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.03; P = 0.16). Nateglinide did, however, increase the risk of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Among persons with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, assignment to nateglinide for 5 years did not reduce the incidence of diabetes or the coprimary composite cardiovascular outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
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4.
  • McMurray, John J, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1477-1490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive valsartan (up to 160 mg daily) or placebo (and nateglinide or placebo) in addition to lifestyle modification. We then followed the patients for a median of 5.0 years for the development of diabetes (6.5 years for vital status). We studied the effects of valsartan on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; an extended composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, arterial revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina; and a core composite outcome that excluded unstable angina and revascularization. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 33.1% in the valsartan group, as compared with 36.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the valsartan group, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.92; P<0.001). Valsartan, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of either the extended cardiovascular outcome (14.5% vs. 14.8%; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.43) or the core cardiovascular outcome (8.1% vs. 8.1%; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14; P=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease or risk factors, the use of valsartan for 5 years, along with lifestyle modification, led to a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of diabetes but did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
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5.
  • Reed, Shelby D., et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal medical resources and costs among type 2 diabetes patients participating in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism. - : WILEY. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 20:7, s. 1732-1739
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: TECOS, a cardiovascular safety trial (identifier: NCT00790205) involving 14 671 patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, demonstrated that sitagliptin was non-inferior to placebo for the primary composite cardiovascular outcome when added to best usual care. This study tested hypotheses that medical resource use and costs differed between these 2 treatment strategies. Materials and methods: Information concerning medical resource use was collected on case report forms throughout the trial and was valued using US costs for: Medicare payments for hospitalizations, medical procedures and outpatient visits, and wholesale acquisition costs (WAC) for diabetes-related medications. Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to compare resource use and US costs, accounting for variable intercountry practice patterns. Sensitivity analyses included resource valuation using English costs for a UK perspective. Results: There were no significant differences in hospitalizations, inpatient days, medical procedures, or outpatient visits during follow-up (mean and median 3.0 years in both groups). Hospitalization rates appeared to diverge after 2 years, with lower rates among sitagliptin-treated vs placebo patients after 2.5 years (relative rate, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.83-0.97]; P = .01). Mean medical costs, exclusive of study medication, were 11 937 USD in the sitagliptin arm and 12 409 USD in the placebo arm (P = .06). Mean sitagliptin costs based on undiscounted WAC were 9978 USD per patient. Differential UK total costs including study drug costs were smaller (911 GBP), primarily because of lower mean costs for sitagliptin (1072 GBP). Conclusions: Lower hospitalization rates across time with sitagliptin slightly offset sitagliptin treatment costs over 3 years in type 2 diabetes patients at high risk for cardiovascular events.
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6.
  • Fioretto, Paola, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment (chronic kidney disease stage 3A) : The DERIVE Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 20:11, s. 2532-2540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin 10 mg vs placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and moderate renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2); chronic kidney disease [CKD] stage 3A). Materials and methods: In this double-blind, parallel group, Phase 3 study (NCT02413398, ) patients with inadequately controlled T2D (HbA1c 7.0%-11.0%) were randomized (1:1) to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily (N = 160) or matching placebo (N = 161) for 24 weeks. Randomization was stratified by pre-enrolment glucose-lowering therapy. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at Week 24. Results: At Week 24, compared with placebo, dapagliflozin significantly decreased HbA1c (difference [95% CI], -0.34% [-0.53, -0.15]; P < 0.001), body weight (difference [95% CI], -1.25 kg [-1.90, -0.59]; P < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (difference [95% CI], -0.9 mmol/L [-1.5, -0.4]; P = 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (difference [95% CI], -3.1 mmHg [-6.3, 0.0]; P < 0.05). Decreases from baseline in eGFR were greater with dapagliflozin than placebo at Week 24 (-2.49 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [-4.96, -0.02]), however, eGFR returned to baseline levels at Week 27 (3 weeks post-treatment) (0.61 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [-1.59, 2.81]). No increase in adverse events (AEs; 41.9% vs 47.8%) or serious AEs (5.6% vs 8.7%) were reported with dapagliflozin versus placebo. No AEs of bone fractures, amputations or DKA were reported. Conclusions: The findings of this study (NCT02413398, ) support the positive benefit/risk profile of dapagliflozin for the treatment of patients with T2D and CKD 3A.
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7.
  • Holman, Rury R, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Once-Weekly Exenatide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 377:13, s. 1228-1239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effects of adding once-weekly treatment with exenatide to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown.METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes, with or without previous cardiovascular disease, to receive subcutaneous injections of extended-release exenatide at a dose of 2 mg or matching placebo once weekly. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. The coprimary hypotheses were that exenatide, administered once weekly, would be noninferior to placebo with respect to safety and superior to placebo with respect to efficacy.RESULTS: In all, 14,752 patients (of whom 10,782 [73.1%] had previous cardiovascular disease) were followed for a median of 3.2 years (interquartile range, 2.2 to 4.4). A primary composite outcome event occurred in 839 of 7356 patients (11.4%; 3.7 events per 100 person-years) in the exenatide group and in 905 of 7396 patients (12.2%; 4.0 events per 100 person-years) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.00), with the intention-to-treat analysis indicating that exenatide, administered once weekly, was noninferior to placebo with respect to safety (P<0.001 for noninferiority) but was not superior to placebo with respect to efficacy (P=0.06 for superiority). The rates of death from cardiovascular causes, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, and hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, and the incidence of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes with or without previous cardiovascular disease, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ significantly between patients who received exenatide and those who received placebo. (Funded by Amylin Pharmaceuticals; EXSCEL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01144338 .).
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8.
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