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Sökning: WFRF:(Butt Salma)

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1.
  • Brand, J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and Onset of Natural Menopause: Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition EDITORIAL COMMENT
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0029-7828. ; 70:8, s. 507-508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The age at natural menopause (ANM) in the Western world ranges from 40 to 60 years, with an average onset of 51 years. The exact mechanisms underlying the timing of ANM are not completely understood. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved. The best-established environmental factor affecting ANM is smoking; menopause occurs 1 to 2 years earlier in smokers. In addition to genetic and environmental factors, chronic metabolic diseases may influence ANM. Some evidence suggests that diabetes may accelerate menopausal onset. With more women of childbearing age receiving a diagnosis of diabetes, it is important to examine the impact of diabetes on reproductive health. This study was designed to determine whether ANM occurs at an earlier age among women who have diabetes before menopause than in women without diabetes. Data were obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a large multicenter prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors and the incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases. A cohort of 519,978 men and women, mostly aged 27 to 70 years, were recruited primarily from the general population between 1992 and 2000. A total of 367,331 women participated in the EPIC study. After exclusions, 258,898 of these women met study inclusion criteria. Diabetes status at baseline and menopausal age were based on self-report and were obtained through questionnaires. Participants were asked if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes and if so at what age. Associations of diabetes and age at diabetes diagnosis with ANM were estimated using time-dependent Cox regression analyses, with stratification by center and adjustments for age, smoking, reproductive, and known diabetes risk factors including smoking and with age from birth to menopause or censoring as the underlying time scale. Overall, there was no statistically significant lower risk of becoming menopausal among women with diabetes than women with no diabetes; the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.94, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.89 to 1.01. However, compared with women with no diabetes, women with diabetes before the age of 20 years had an earlier menopause (10-20 years [HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.01] and <10 years [HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.03-2.43]), whereas women with diabetes at age 50 years or older had a later menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). No association with ANM was found for diabetes onset between the ages 20 and 50 years. Strengths of the study include its large sample size and the measurement of a broad set of potential confounders. However, there were several limitations. First, results may have been underestimated because of survival bias. Second, the sequence of menopause and diabetes in women with a late age at diabetes is uncertain, as both events occur in a short period, and both diabetes and menopause status were based on self-report, not verified by medical records. Third, no distinction was made between types 1 and 2 diabetes. Although there is no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, the data suggest that early-onset diabetes may accelerate menopause. The delaying effect of late-onset diabetes on ANM is not in agreement with other studies suggesting the opposite association.
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3.
  • Butt, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic predisposition, parity, age at first childbirth and risk for breast cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Research Notes. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1756-0500. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recent studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of breast cancer and parity and age at first childbirth are well established and important risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between these environmental factors and genetic variants on breast cancer risk. Methods: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) included 17 035 female participants, from which 728 incident breast cancer cases were matched to 1448 controls. The associations between 14 SNPs and breast cancer risk were investigated in different strata of parity and age at first childbirth. A logistic regression analysis for the per allele risk, adjusted for potential confounders yielded odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Six of the previously identified SNPs showed a statistically significant association with breast cancer risk: rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3803662 (TNRC9), rs12443621 (TNRC9), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3817198 (LSP1) and rs2107425 (H19). We could not find any statistically significant interaction between the effects of tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth on breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: The results of this study are in agreement with previous studies of null interactions between tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth with regard to breast cancer risk.
4.
  • Butt, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • The Target for Statins, HMG-CoA Reductase, Is Expressed in Ductal Carcinoma-In Situ and May Predict Patient Response to Radiotherapy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgical Oncology. - 1068-9265 .- 1534-4681. ; 21:9, s. 2911-2919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background. Patients with ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) are currently not prescribed adjuvant systemic treatment after surgery and radiotherapy. Prediction of DCIS patients who would benefit from radiotherapy is warranted. Statins have been suggested to exert radio-sensitizing effects. The target for cholesterol-lowering statins is HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. The aim of this study was to examine HMGCR expression in DCIS and study its treatment predictive value. Methods. A population-based cohort including 458 women diagnosed with primary DCIS between 1986 and 2004 were followed until November 2011 to study long-term survival. Tumor tissue microarrays were constructed, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to detect cytoplasmic protein expression of HMGCR. The association between DCIS HMGCR expression and invasive breast cancer recurrence-free survival (RFSinv) and overall survival (OS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves, log rank test, and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results. HMGCR was strongly expressed in 24 % of the assessed DCIS samples, moderately expressed in 46 %, and weakly expressed in 23 %; no expression was detected in 7 % of the samples. During the follow-up time (median 13.8 years), 61 patients were diagnosed with an invasive breast cancer recurrence, and 80 patients died. A crude analysis showed no survival benefit from radiotherapy. However, patients with strong HMGCR expression showed an improved RFSinv (log rank, p = 0.03) and OS (log rank, p = 0.04) after radiotherapy. No statistically significant interaction was observed for HMGCR and radiotherapy (RFSinv p = 0.69 and OS p = 0.29). Conclusions. This study demonstrates HMGCR expression in DCIS and suggests HMGCR as a predictive marker of response to postoperative radiotherapy in DCIS, although the test for interaction was nonsignificant. Future DCIS studies addressing the potential of statin treatment targeting HMGCR are warranted.</p>
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5.
  • Butt, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • The Target for Statins, HMG-CoA Reductase, Is Expressed in Ductal Carcinoma-In Situ and May Predict Patient Response to Radiotherapy.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgical Oncology. - Springer. - 1534-4681. ; 21:9, s. 2911-2919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) are currently not prescribed adjuvant systemic treatment after surgery and radiotherapy. Prediction of DCIS patients who would benefit from radiotherapy is warranted. Statins have been suggested to exert radio-sensitizing effects. The target for cholesterol-lowering statins is HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. The aim of this study was to examine HMGCR expression in DCIS and study its treatment predictive value.
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6.
  • Fortner, Renée T, et al. (författare)
  • Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers : results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 140:6, s. 1317-1323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case–control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at p < 0.157 indicating improvement in the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Improvement in discrimination was assessed using the C-statistic for all biomarkers alone, and change in C-statistic from addition of biomarkers to preexisting absolute risk estimates. We used internal validation with bootstrapping (1000-fold) to adjust for over-fitting. Adiponectin, estrone, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and triglycerides were selected into the model. After accounting for over-fitting, discrimination was improved by 2.0 percentage points when all evaluated biomarkers were included and 1.7 percentage points in the model including the selected biomarkers. Models including etiologic markers on independent pathways and genetic markers may further improve discrimination.
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7.
  • Harlid, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • A candidate CpG SNP approach identifies a breast cancer associated ESR1-SNP.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; Dec, s. 1689-1698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Altered DNA methylation is often seen in malignant cells, potentially contributing to carcinogenesis by suppressing gene expression. We hypothesized that heritable methylation potential might be a risk factor for breast cancer and evaluated possible association with breast cancer for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) either involving CpG sequences in extended 5'- regulatory regions of candidate genes (ESR1, ESR2, PGR and SHBG) or CpG and missense coding SNPs in genes involved in methylation (MBD1, MECP2, DNMT1, MGMT, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MTHFD1, MTHFD2, BHMT, DCTD and SLC19A1). Genome-wide searches for genetic risk factors for breast cancers have in general not investigated these SNPs, because of low minor allele frequency or weak haplotype associations.Genotyping was performed using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-Tof in a screening panel of 538 cases and 1067 controls. Potential association to breast cancer was identified for 15 SNPs and one of these SNPs (rs7766585 in ESR1) was found to associate strongly with breast cancer, OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.17-1.45; p-value 2.1x10(-6)), when tested in a verification panel consisting of 3211 unique breast cancer cases and 4223 unique controls from five European biobank cohorts.In conclusion, a candidate gene search strategy focusing on methylation-related SNPs did identify a SNP that associated with breast cancer at high significance.
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8.
  • Harlid, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effect of low-penetrant SNPs on breast cancer risk.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 106, s. 389-396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Although many low-penetrant genetic risk factors for breast cancer have been discovered, knowledge about the effect of multiple risk alleles is limited, especially in women <50 years. We therefore investigated the association between multiple risk alleles and breast cancer risk as well as individual effects according to age-approximated pre- and post-menopausal status.Methods:Ten previously described breast cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed in a joint European biobank-based study comprising 3584 breast cancer cases and 5063 cancer-free controls. Genotyping was performed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression.Results:Significant associations with breast cancer were confirmed for 7 of the 10 SNPs. Analysis of the joint effect of the original 10 as well as the statistically significant 7 SNPs (rs2981582, rs3803662, rs889312, rs13387042, rs13281615, rs3817198 and rs981782) found a highly significant trend for increasing breast cancer risk with increasing number of risk alleles (P-trend 5.6 × 10(-20) and 1.5 × 10(-25), respectively). Odds ratio for breast cancer of 1.84 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59-2.14; 10 SNPs) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.80-2.50; 7 SNPs) was seen for the maximum vs the minimum number of risk alleles. Additionally, one of the examined SNPs (rs981782 in HCN1) had a protective effect that was significantly stronger in premenopausal women (P-value: 7.9 × 10(-4)).Conclusion:The strongly increasing risk seen when combining many low-penetrant risk alleles supports the polygenic inheritance model of breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 1 November 2011; doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.461 www.bjcancer.com.
9.
  • Kyrø, Cecilie, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 154:2, s. 389-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status.
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10.
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