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  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley Open Access. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
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  • Charman, Tony, et al. (författare)
  • The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) : clinical characterisation.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular Autism. - 2040-2392. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) is to date the largest multi-centre, multi-disciplinary observational study on biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current paper describes the clinical characteristics of the LEAP cohort and examines age, sex and IQ differences in ASD core symptoms and common co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. A companion paper describes the overall design and experimental protocol and outlines the strategy to identify stratification biomarkers.METHODS: From six research centres in four European countries, we recruited 437 children and adults with ASD and 300 controls between the ages of 6 and 30 years with IQs varying between 50 and 148. We conducted in-depth clinical characterisation including a wide range of observational, interview and questionnaire measures of the ASD phenotype, as well as co-occurring psychiatric symptoms.RESULTS: The cohort showed heterogeneity in ASD symptom presentation, with only minimal to moderate site differences on core clinical and cognitive measures. On both parent-report interview and questionnaire measures, ASD symptom severity was lower in adults compared to children and adolescents. The precise pattern of differences varied across measures, but there was some evidence of both lower social symptoms and lower repetitive behaviour severity in adults. Males had higher ASD symptom scores than females on clinician-rated and parent interview diagnostic measures but not on parent-reported dimensional measures of ASD symptoms. In contrast, self-reported ASD symptom severity was higher in adults compared to adolescents, and in adult females compared to males. Higher scores on ASD symptom measures were moderately associated with lower IQ. Both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms were lower in adults than in children and adolescents, and males with ASD had higher levels of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms than females.CONCLUSIONS: The established phenotypic heterogeneity in ASD is well captured in the LEAP cohort. Variation both in core ASD symptom severity and in commonly co-occurring psychiatric symptoms were systematically associated with sex, age and IQ. The pattern of ASD symptom differences with age and sex also varied by whether these were clinician ratings or parent- or self-reported which has important implications for establishing stratification biomarkers and for their potential use as outcome measures in clinical trials.
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  • Loth, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) : design and methodologies to identify and validate stratification biomarkers for autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular Autism. - 2040-2392. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The tremendous clinical and aetiological diversity among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been a major obstacle to the development of new treatments, as many may only be effective in particular subgroups. Precision medicine approaches aim to overcome this challenge by combining pathophysiologically based treatments with stratification biomarkers that predict which treatment may be most beneficial for particular individuals. However, so far, we have no single validated stratification biomarker for ASD. This may be due to the fact that most research studies primarily have focused on the identification of mean case-control differences, rather than within-group variability, and included small samples that were underpowered for stratification approaches. The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) is to date the largest multi-centre, multi-disciplinary observational study worldwide that aims to identify and validate stratification biomarkers for ASD.METHODS: LEAP includes 437 children and adults with ASD and 300 individuals with typical development or mild intellectual disability. Using an accelerated longitudinal design, each participant is comprehensively characterised in terms of clinical symptoms, comorbidities, functional outcomes, neurocognitive profile, brain structure and function, biochemical markers and genomics. In addition, 51 twin-pairs (of which 36 had one sibling with ASD) are included to identify genetic and environmental factors in phenotypic variability.RESULTS: Here, we describe the demographic characteristics of the cohort, planned analytic stratification approaches, criteria and steps to validate candidate stratification markers, pre-registration procedures to increase transparency, standardisation and data robustness across all analyses, and share some 'lessons learnt'. A clinical characterisation of the cohort is given in the companion paper (Charman et al., accepted).CONCLUSION: We expect that LEAP will enable us to confirm, reject and refine current hypotheses of neurocognitive/neurobiological abnormalities, identify biologically and clinically meaningful ASD subgroups, and help us map phenotypic heterogeneity to different aetiologies.
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  • Olofsson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Resolving faint structures in the debris disk around TWA 7 Tentative detections of an outer belt, a spiral arm, and a dusty cloud
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Debris disks are the intrinsic by-products of the star and planet formation processes. Most likely due to instrumental limitations and their natural faintness, little is known about debris disks around low mass stars, especially when it comes to spatially resolved observations. Aims. We present new VLT/SPHERE IRDIS dual-polarization imaging (DPI) observations in which we detect the dust ring around the M2 spectral type star TWA 7. Combined with additional angular differential imaging observations we aim at a fine characterization of the debris disk and setting constraints on the presence of low-mass planets. Methods. We modeled the SPHERE DPI observations and constrain the location of the small dust grains, as well as the spectral energy distribution of the debris disk, using the results inferred from the observations, and performed simple N-body simulations. Results. We find that the dust density distribution peaks at similar to 0.72 '' (25 au), with a very shallow outer power-law slope, and that the disk has an inclination of similar to 13 degrees with a position angle of similar to 91 degrees east of north. We also report low signal-to-noise ratio detections of an outer belt at a distance of similar to 1.5 '' (similar to 52 au) from the star, of a spiral arm in the southern side of the star, and of a possible dusty clump at 0.11 ''. These findings seem to persist over timescales of at least a year. Using the intensity images, we do not detect any planets in the close vicinity of the star, but the sensitivity reaches Jovian planet mass upper limits. We find that the SED is best reproduced with an inner disk at similar to 0.2 '' (similar to 7 au) and another belt at 0.72 '' (25 au). Conclusions. We report the detections of several unexpected features in the disk around TWA 7. A yet undetected 100 M-circle plus planet with a semi-major axis at 20-30 au could possibly explain the outer belt as well as the spiral arm. We conclude that stellar winds are unlikely to be responsible for the spiral arm.
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  • Garcia-Benito, R., et al. (författare)
  • CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey III. Second public data release
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 576:A135
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS /PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 angstrom with a spectral resolution of 6.0 angstrom (FWHM); and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 angstrom with a spectral resolution of 2.3 angstrom (FWHM). The sample covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, with a wide range of properties in the color-magnitude diagram, stellar mass, ionization conditions, and morphological types. All the cubes in the data release were reduced with the latest pipeline, which includes improved spectrophotometric calibration, spatial registration, and spatial resolution. The spectrophotometric calibration is better than 6% and the median spatial resolution is 2 4. In total, the second data release contains over 1.5 million spectra.
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10.
  • Wadsworth, R., et al. (författare)
  • THE NORTHWEST FRONTIER : SPECTROSCOPY OF N similar to Z NUCLEI BELOW MASS 100
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Physica Polonica B. - 0587-4254 .- 1509-5770. ; 40:3, s. 611-620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spectroscopy and structure of excited states of N similar to Z nuclei in the mass 70-100 region has been investigated using two techniques. In the A similar to 70-80 region fusion evaporation reactions coupled with the recoil-beta-tagging method have been employed at Jyvaskyla to study low-lying states in odd-odd N = Z nuclei. Results from these and other data for known odd-odd nuclei above mass 60 will be discussed. In the heavier mass 90 region a fragmentation experiment has been performed using the RIS-ING/FRS setup at GSI. This experiment was primarily aimed at searching for spin gap isomers in nuclei around A similar to 96. The objectives of the latter experiment will be discussed.
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