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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Caldas Carlos) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Caldas Carlos)

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1.
  • Capella, Gabriel, et al. (författare)
  • DNA repair polymorphisms and the risk of stomach adenocarcinoma and severe chronic gastritis in the EPIC-EURGAST study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1464-3685. ; 37:6, s. 1316-1325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The contribution of genetic variation in DNA repair genes to gastric cancer (GC) risk remains essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the relative contribution of DNA repair gene polymorphisms to GC risk and severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG). Method A nested case control study within the EPIC cohort was performed including 246 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1175 matched controls. Controls with SCAG (n 91), as defined by low pepsinogen A (PGA) levels, and controls with no SCAG (n 1061) were also compared. Twelve polymorphisms at DNA repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, XRCC1, OGG1 and ERCC2) and TP53 gene were analysed. Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were measured. Results No association was observed for any of these polymorphisms with stomach cancer risk. However, ERCC2 K751Q polymorphism was associated with an increased risk for non-cardial neoplasm [odds ratio (OR) 1.78; 95 confidence interval (CI) 1.023.12], being ERCC2 K751Q and D312N polymorphisms associated with the diffuse type. ERCC2 D312N (OR 2.0; 95 CI 1.093.65) and K751Q alleles (OR 1.82; 95 CI 1.013.30) and XRCC1 R399Q (OR 1.69; 95 CI 1.022.79) allele were associated with an increased risk for SCAG. Conclusion Our study supports a role of ERCC2 in non-cardial GC but not in cardial cancer. A concordant result was observed for subjects with low PGA levels. XRCC1 allele was associated also with SCAG. This is the first prospective study suggesting that individual variation in DNA repair may be relevant for gastric carcinogenesis, a finding that will require further confirmation validation in larger independent studies.
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2.
  • Hudson, Thomas J., et al. (författare)
  • International network of cancer genome projects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7291, s. 993-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • A genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1946-6234 .- 1946-6242. ; 8:341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regulatory authorities have indicated that new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) should not be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Human genetics may be able to guide development of antidiabetic therapies by predicting cardiovascular and other health endpoints. We therefore investigated the association of variants in six genes that encode drug targets for obesity or T2D with a range of metabolic traits in up to 11, 806 individuals by targeted exome sequencing and follow-up in 39, 979 individuals by targeted genotyping, with additional in silico follow-up in consortia. We used these data to first compare associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets with the effects of pharmacological manipulation of those targets in clinical trials. We then tested the association of those variants with disease outcomes, including coronary heart disease, to predict cardiovascular safety of these agents. A low-frequency missense variant (Ala316Thr; rs10305492) in the gene encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R), the target of GLP1R agonists, was associated with lower fasting glucose and T2D risk, consistent with GLP1R agonist therapies. The minor allele was also associated with protection against heart disease, thus providing evidence that GLP1R agonists are not likely to be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Our results provide an encouraging signal that these agents may be associated with benefit, a question currently being addressed in randomized controlled trials. Genetic variants associated with metabolic traits and multiple disease outcomes can be used to validate therapeutic targets at an early stage in the drug development process.
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5.
  • Alexandrov, Ludmil B., et al. (författare)
  • Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 500:7463, s. 415-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.
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6.
  • Carneiro, Fatima, et al. (författare)
  • Pathology findings and validation of gastric and esophageal cancer cases in a European cohort (EPIC/EUR-GAST)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1502-7708. ; 42:5, s. 618-627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Cardia, non-cardia and intestinal and diffuse subtypes of gastric cancer may have different trends and etiological factors. However, the available information is not always collected in population cancer registries, and heterogeneous criteria have been applied for the histopathological classification of tumors. We describe the pathological features of incident gastric and esophageal cancers identified within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Material and methods. In an investigation on gastric and esophageal cancer (EUR-GAST) in the EPIC project, a validation study of diagnoses reported by EPIC centers was conducted by a European panel of pathologists. Original pathology reports, stained slides of tumors and the respective paraffin blocks were requested from the centers. Results. The whole series encompassed 467 cancer cases (gastric and esophageal cancers). Material was available for histopathological validation in 263 cases (56%); in the remaining cases, information was retrieved from the original reports (n = 110; 24%) or codes provided by the EPIC centers (n = 94; 20%). Among cases submitted to histopathological validation reported originally as unknown histotype or unknown site, a specific diagnosis was made in 95% and 74% of the cases, respectively. In cases for which only the original reports were available, the respective percentages were 46% and 67%. Gastric adenocarcinomas were classified according to site (cardia (29.4%), non-cardia (48.2%) and unknown (22.4%)) and histological type (intestinal (33.4%), diffuse (33.7%) and mixed, unclassified or unknown (32.9%)). Frequency of cardia was higher in Northern countries (35%) than in Mediterranean countries (18%). Conclusions. In addition to providing epidemiological data within the EPIC cohort on gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas, the results reported here confirm the relevance of a validation study, notably for multicenter studies.
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  • Escala-Garcia, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • A network analysis to identify mediators of germline-driven differences in breast cancer prognosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies similar to 7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.
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9.
  • Escala-Garcia, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of germline variants and breast cancer-specific mortality
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 120:6, s. 647-657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using similar to 10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P<5 x 10(-8). For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 x 10(-7), hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [ CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7: rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 x 10(-7), HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP <15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.
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10.
  • Lagergren, K., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in Genes of Relevance for Oestrogen and Oxytocin Pathways and Risk of Barrett's Oesophagus and Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Pooled Analysis from the BEACON Consortium
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and Barrett's oesophagus (BO) continues to puzzle. Hormonal influence, e.g. oestrogen or oxytocin, might contribute. This genetic-epidemiological study pooled 14 studies from three continents, Australia, Europe, and North America. Polymorphisms in 3 key genes coding for the oestrogen pathway (receptor alpha (ESR1), receptor beta (ESR2), and aromatase (CYP19A1)), and 3 key genes of the oxytocin pathway (the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), oxytocin protein (OXT), and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase glycoprotein (CD38)), were analysed using a gene-based approach, versatile gene-based test association study (VEGAS). Among 1508 OAC patients, 2383 BO patients, and 2170 controls, genetic variants within ESR1 were associated with BO in males (p = 0.0058) and an increased risk of OAC and BO combined in males (p = 0.0023). Genetic variants within OXTR were associated with an increased risk of BO in both sexes combined (p = 0.0035) and in males (p = 0.0012). We followed up these suggestive findings in a further smaller data set, but found no replication. There were no significant associations between the other 4 genes studied and risk of OAC, BO, separately on in combination, in males and females combined or in males only. Genetic variants in the oestrogen receptor alpha and the oxytocin receptor may be associated with an increased risk of BO or OAC, but replication in other large samples are needed.
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