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Sökning: WFRF:(Califf Robert M)

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  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Holman, Rury R., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Nateglinide on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1463-1476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive nateglinide (up to 60 mg three times daily) or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo, in addition to participation in a lifestyle modification program. We followed the participants for a median of 5.0 years for incident diabetes (and a median of 6.5 years for vital status). We evaluated the effect of nateglinide on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; a core cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure; and an extended cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of the individual components of the core composite cardiovascular outcome, hospitalization for unstable angina, or arterial revascularization. RESULTS After adjustment for multiple testing, nateglinide, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of diabetes (36% and 34%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.15; P = 0.05), the core composite cardiovascular outcome (7.9% and 8.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.09; P = 0.43), or the extended composite cardiovascular outcome (14.2% and 15.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.03; P = 0.16). Nateglinide did, however, increase the risk of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Among persons with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, assignment to nateglinide for 5 years did not reduce the incidence of diabetes or the coprimary composite cardiovascular outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
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2.
  • McMurray, John J, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1477-1490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive valsartan (up to 160 mg daily) or placebo (and nateglinide or placebo) in addition to lifestyle modification. We then followed the patients for a median of 5.0 years for the development of diabetes (6.5 years for vital status). We studied the effects of valsartan on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; an extended composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, arterial revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina; and a core composite outcome that excluded unstable angina and revascularization. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 33.1% in the valsartan group, as compared with 36.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the valsartan group, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.92; P<0.001). Valsartan, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of either the extended cardiovascular outcome (14.5% vs. 14.8%; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.43) or the core cardiovascular outcome (8.1% vs. 8.1%; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14; P=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease or risk factors, the use of valsartan for 5 years, along with lifestyle modification, led to a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of diabetes but did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
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3.
  • Fanaroff, Alexander C., et al. (författare)
  • Frequency, Regional Variation, and Predictors of Undetermined Cause of Death in Cardiometabolic Clinical Trials : A Pooled Analysis of 9259 Deaths in 9 Trials
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 139:7, s. 863-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Modern cardiometabolic clinical trials often include cardiovascular death as a component of a composite primary outcome, requiring central adjudication by a clinical events committee to classify cause of death. However, sometimes the cause of death cannot be determined from available data. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated that this circumstance should occur only rarely, but its prevalence has not been formally assessed. METHODS: Data from 9 global clinical trials (2009-2017) with long-term follow-up and blinded, centrally adjudicated cause of death were used to calculate the proportion of deaths attributed to cardiovascular, noncardiovascular, or undetermined causes by therapeutic area (diabetes mellitus/pre-diabetes mellitus, stable atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, and acute coronary syndrome), region of patient enrollment, and year of trial manuscript publication. Patient-and trial-level variables associated with undetermined cause of death were identified using a logistic model. RESULTS: Across 127 049 enrolled participants from 9 trials, there were 9259 centrally adjudicated deaths: 5012 (54.1%) attributable to cardiovascular causes, 2800 (30.2%) attributable to noncardiovascular causes, and 1447 (15.6%) attributable to undetermined causes. There was variability in the proportion of deaths ascribed to undetermined causes by trial therapeutic area, region of enrollment, and year of trial manuscript publication. On multivariable analysis, acute coronary syndrome or atrial fibrillation trial (versus atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetes mellitus/pre-diabetes mellitus), longer time from enrollment to death, more recent trial manuscript publication year, enrollment in North America (versus Western Europe), female sex, and older age were associated with greater likelihood of death of undetermined cause. CONCLUSIONS: In 9 cardiometabolic clinical trials with long-term followup, approximately 16% of deaths had undetermined causes. This provides a baseline for quality assessment of clinical trials and informs operational efforts to potentially reduce the frequency of undetermined deaths in future clinical research.
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4.
  • Lopes, Renato D., et al. (författare)
  • Highlights from the III International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation (ISTA), October 14-16, 2010, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - 0929-5305 .- 1573-742X. ; 32:2, s. 242-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To discuss and share knowledge around advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Third International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in So Paulo, Brazil, from October 14-16, 2010. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians, and was promoted by four major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, the Canadian VIGOUR Centre, and the Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Comprising 3 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings.
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5.
  • Teo, Koon K., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of telmisartan, irbesartan, valsartan, candesartan, and losartan on cancers in 15 trials enrolling 138 769 individuals The ARB Trialists Collaboration
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 29:4, s. 623-635
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but a recent meta-analysis of selected studies suggested that ARBs may increase cancer risks.Objective Candesartan, irbesartan, telmisartan, valsartan, and losartan were assessed for incident cancers in 15 large parallel long-term multicenter double-blind clinical trials of these agents involving 138 769 participants.Patients and methods Individuals at high CVD risk were randomized to telmisartan (three trials, n=51 878), irbesartan (three trials, n=14 859), valsartan (four trials, n=44 264), candesartan (four trials, n=18 566), and losartan (one trial, n=9193) and followed for 23-60 months. Incident cancer cases were compared in patients randomized to ARBs versus controls. In five trials (n=42 403), the ARBs were compared to ACEi and in 11 trials (n=63 313) to controls without ACEi. In addition, in seven trials (n=47 020), the effect of ARBs with ACEi was compared to ACEi alone and in two trials ARBs with ACEi versus ARB alone (n=25 712).Results Overall, there was no excess of cancer incidence with ARB therapy compared to controls in the 15 trials [ 4549 (6.16%) cases of 73 808 allocated to ARB versus 3856 (6.31%) of 61 106 assigned to non-ARB controls; odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-1.04] overall or when individual ARBs were examined. ORs comparing combination therapy with ARB along with ACEi versus ACEi was 1.01 (95% CI 0.94-1.10), combination versus ARB alone 1.02 (95% CI 0.91-1.13), ARB alone versus ACEi alone 1.06 (95% CI 0.97-1.16) and ARB versus placebo/control without ACEi 0.97 (95% CI 0.91-1.04). There was no excess of lung, prostate or breast cancer, or overall cancer deaths associated with ARB treatment.Conclusion There was no significant increase in the overall or site-specific cancer risk from ARBs compared to controls.
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6.
  • Bonaca, Marc P, et al. (författare)
  • Antithrombotics in acute coronary syndromes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 54:11, s. 969-984
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antithrombotic agents are an integral component of the medical regimens and interventional strategies currently recommended to reduce thrombotic complications in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Despite great advances with these therapies, associated high risks for thrombosis and hemorrhage remain as the result of complex interactions involving patient comorbidities, drug combinations, multifaceted dosing adjustments, and the intricacies of the care environment. As such, the optimal combinations of antithrombotic therapies, their timing, and appropriate targeted subgroups remain the focus of intense research. During the last several years a number of new antithrombotic treatments have been introduced, and new data regarding established therapies have come to light. Although treatment guidelines include the most current available data, subsequent findings can be challenging to integrate. This challenge is compounded by the complexity associated with different efficacy and safety measures and the variability in study populations, presenting syndromes, physician, and patient preferences. In this work we review recent data regarding clinically available antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents used in the treatment of patients with ACS. We address issues including relative efficacy, safety, and timing of therapies with respect to conservative and invasive treatment strategies. In specific cases we will highlight remaining questions and controversies and ongoing trials, which will hopefully shed light in these areas. In addition to reviewing existing agents, we take a look forward at the most promising new antithrombotics currently in late-stage clinical development and their potential role in the context of ACS management.
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7.
  • Guigliano, Robert P, et al. (författare)
  • Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 360:21, s. 2176-2190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are indicated in patients with acute coronary syndromes who are undergoing an invasive procedure. The optimal timing of the initiation of such therapy is unknown. Methods We compared a strategy of early, routine administration of eptifibatide with delayed, provisional administration in 9492 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and who were assigned to an invasive strategy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either early eptifibatide (two boluses, each containing 180 µg per kilogram of body weight, administered 10 minutes apart, and a standard infusion 12 hours before angiography) or a matching placebo infusion with provisional use of eptifibatide after angiography (delayed eptifibatide). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization, or the occurrence of a thrombotic complication during percutaneous coronary intervention that required bolus therapy opposite to the initial study-group assignment ("thrombotic bailout") at 96 hours. The key secondary end point was a composite of death or myocardial infarction within the first 30 days. Key safety end points were bleeding and the need for transfusion within the first 120 hours after randomization. Results The primary end point occurred in 9.3% of patients in the early-eptifibatide group and in 10.0% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P=0.23). At 30 days, the rate of death or myocardial infarction was 11.2% in the early-eptifibatide group, as compared with 12.3% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.01; P=0.08). Patients in the early-eptifibatide group had significantly higher rates of bleeding and red-cell transfusion. There was no significant difference between the two groups in rates of severe bleeding or nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events. Conclusions In patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation, the use of eptifibatide 12 hours or more before angiography was not superior to the provisional use of eptifibatide after angiography. The early use of eptifibatide was associated with an increased risk of non–life-threatening bleeding and need for transfusion.    
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8.
  • Melloni, Chiara, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of adjusted-dose eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes and reduced renal function
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 162:5, s. 884-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Dose adjustment of renally excreted antithrombotic drugs is recommended for patients with reduced renal function. We examined the influence of dose modification on bleeding and efficacy. Methods Based on initial study drug infusion rate, Early GP IIb/IIIa Inhibition in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (EARLY ACS) patients were categorized into groups: standard dose (2 mu g/kg/min; estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl] >= 50 ml/min), adjusted dose (1 mu g/kg/min; eCrCl <50 ml/min, per protocol), excess dose (2 mu g/kg/min; eCrCl <50 ml/min). We explored relationships among initial dosing, randomized treatment assignment, and bleeding and ischemic end points (96-h composite of death, myocardial infarction [MI], recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization or thrombotic bailout, and 30-d death or MI). Results Of 8,708 patients with eCrCl and dosing data, 19% had eCrCl <50 ml/min. Of these, 13% received adjusted dose eptifibatide and 6% received an excess dose. Across all dosing groups, no significant reductions were found in ischemic end points between early versus delayed provisional eptifibatide (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.65; OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.81-1.56, respectively, for 96-h and 30-d composite end points). Bleeding risk was not significantly increased in the early versus delayed provisional treatment group in either the adjusted (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.95-2.39) or excess dose group (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.85-3.39). There were no significant interactions between dose group and treatment strategy on bleeding or efficacy. Conclusion Similar to observations in practice, despite guidelines recommendations and protocol guidance, 34% of EARLY ACS patients with reduced renal function failed to receive an appropriately adjusted study drug infusion. Use of an appropriately adjusted eptifibatide infusion was not associated with expected reductions in bleeding among patients with renal insufficiency.
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9.
  • Roe, Matthew T., et al. (författare)
  • Regional Patterns of Use of a Medical Management Strategy for Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes : Insights From the EARLY ACS Trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. - 1941-7713 .- 1941-7705. ; 5:2, s. 205-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Regional differences in the profile and prognosis of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) patients treated with medical management after angiography remain uncertain.Methods and Results: Using data from the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (EARLY ACS) trial, we examined regional variations in the use of an in-hospital medical management strategy in NSTE ACS patients who had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) identified during angiography, factors associated with the use of a medical management strategy, and 1-year mortality rates. Of 9406 patients, 8387 (89%) underwent angiography and had significant CAD; thereafter, 1766 (21%) were treated solely with a medical management strategy (range: 18% to 23% across 4 major geographic regions). Factors most strongly associated with a medical management strategy were negative baseline troponin values, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, lower baseline hemoglobin values, and greater number of diseased vessels; region was not a significant factor. One-year mortality was higher among patients treated with a medical management strategy compared with those who underwent revascularization (7.8% versus 3.6%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.76), with no significant interaction by region (interaction probability value=0.42).Conclusions: Approximately 20% of NSTE ACS patients with significant CAD in an international trial were treated solely with an in-hospital medical management strategy after early angiography, with no regional differences in factors associated with medical management or the risk of 1-year mortality. These findings have important implications for the conduct of future clinical trials, and highlight global similarities in the profile and prognosis of medically managed NSTE ACS patients.
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10.
  • Wang, Tracy Y., et al. (författare)
  • Upstream Clopidogrel Use and the Efficacy and Safety of Early Eptifibatide Treatment in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome An Analysis From the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (EARLY ACS) Trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 126:7, s. 722-730
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-In the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (EARLY ACS) trial, routine preangiography eptifibatide use was not superior to delayed provisional use but led to more bleeding. This analysis examines efficacy and safety of early eptifibatide in the setting of concurrent upstream clopidogrel use. Methods and Results-In EARLY-ACS, clopidogrel use and timing were determined by treating physicians, but randomization to early eptifibatide versus placebo was stratified by the intent to use upstream clopidogrel. Among 9166 non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent coronary angiography, intent to use upstream clopidogrel was declared in 6895 (75%), and 7068 (77%) received upstream clopidogrel. After multivariable adjustment, intended upstream clopidogrel use did not differentially influence the effect of early eptifibatide on the primary end point of 96-hour death/myocardial infarction/recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization/thrombotic bailout (interaction P = 0.988). Early eptifibatide use reduced 30-day death/myocardial infarction among patients with intended upstream clopidogrel (adjusted odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.99) but not among those without intended upstream clopidogrel use (adjusted odds ratio 1.02; 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.30). However, the clopidogrel by randomized treatment interaction term was not significant (P = 0.23). Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding risk was increased with early eptifibatide in the setting of upstream clopidogrel use. Results were similar using actual clopidogrel treatment strata. Conclusions-Routine early eptifibatide use, compared with delayed provisional use, may be associated with lower 30-day ischemic risk in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients also treated with clopidogrel before angiography. The benefit-risk ratio of intensive platelet inhibition with combined early use of antiplatelet agents needs further evaluation in prospective randomized trials.
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