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  • Davies, Gail, et al. (författare)
  • Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total N = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.
  • Higier, Rachel G, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced neurocognitive functioning and positive temperament in twins discordant for bipolar disorder
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - American Psychiatric Publishing. - 0002-953X. ; 171:11, s. 1191-1198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Based on evidence linking creativity and bipolar disorder, a model has been proposed whereby factors influencing liability to bipolar disorder confer certain traits with positive effects on reproductive fitness. The authors tested this model by examining key traits known to be associated with evolutionary fitness, namely, temperament and neurocognition, in individuals carrying liability for bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia probands and their co-twins were included as psychiatric controls.METHOD: Twin pairs discordant for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and control pairs were identified through the Swedish Twin Registry. The authors administered a neuropsychological test battery and temperament questionnaires to samples of bipolar probands, bipolar co-twins, schizophrenia probands, schizophrenia co-twins, and controls. Multivariate mixed-model analyses of variance were conducted to compare groups on temperament and neurocognitive scores.RESULTS: Bipolar co-twins showed elevated scores on a "positivity" temperament scale compared with controls and bipolar probands, while bipolar probands scored higher on a "negativity" scale compared with their co-twins and controls, who did not differ. Additionally, bipolar co-twins showed superior performance compared with controls on tests of verbal learning and fluency, while bipolar probands showed performance decrements across all neurocognitive domains. In contrast, schizophrenia co-twins showed attenuated impairments in positivity and overall neurocognitive functioning relative to their ill proband counterparts.CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that supra-normal levels of sociability and verbal functioning may be associated with liability for bipolar disorder. These effects were specific to liability for bipolar disorder and did not apply to schizophrenia. Such benefits may provide a partial explanation for the persistence of bipolar illness in the population.
  • Johansson, Viktoria, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid microglia and neurodegenerative markers in twins concordant and discordant for psychotic disorders.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. - 1433-8491. ; 267:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17 complete twin pairs, nine monozygotic and eight dizygotic, and from one twin sibling. Two pairs were concordant for schizophrenia, and 11 pairs discordant for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder, and four pairs were not affected by psychotic disorders. Markers of microglia activation [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14)], markers of β-amyloid metabolism (AβX-38, AβX-40, AβX-42 and Aβ1-42), soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPP-α and sAPP-β), total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), and CSF/serum albumin ratio were measured in CSF using immunoassays. Heritability of the CSF markers was estimated, and associations to psychiatric and cognitive measurements were analyzed. Heritability estimates of the microglia markers were moderate, whereas several neurodegenerative markers showed high heritability. In contrast, AβX-42, Aβ1-42, P-tau and CSF/serum albumin ratio were influenced by dominant genetic variation. Higher sCD14 levels were found in twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder compared to their not affected co-twins, and higher sCD14-levels were associated with psychotic symptoms. The study provides support for a significant role of sCD14 in psychotic disorders and a possible role of microglia activation in psychosis.
  • Kegel, Magdalena E, et al. (författare)
  • Kynurenic acid and psychotic symptoms and personality traits in twins with psychiatric morbidity.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry research. - 1872-7123. ; 247, s. 105-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins. Ratings of psychotic symptoms and personality traits were made using the Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive symptoms, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II Disorders, and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief. A total score for psychotic symptoms and personality traits was constructed for analysis. CSF KYNA was associated with the score for psychotic symptom and personality traits. TNF-α and IL-8 were associated, and the intra-pair differences scores of TNF-α and IL-8 were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations indicated genetic influences on CSF KYNA, TRP, IL-8 and TNF-α. The association between KYNA and psychotic symptoms further supports a role of KYNA in psychotic disorders.
  • Lichtenstein, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families : a population-based study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 373:9659, s. 234-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the clinical outcomes of discrete or shared causative processes is much debated in psychiatry. We aimed to assess genetic and environmental contributions to liability for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and their comorbidity. Methods We linked the multi-generation register, which contains information about all children and their parents in Sweden, and the hospital discharge register, which includes all public psychiatric inpatient admissions in Sweden. We identified 9 009 202 unique individuals in more than 2 million nuclear families between 1973 and 2004. Risks for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and their comorbidity were assessed for biological and adoptive parents, offspring, full-siblings and half-siblings of probands with one of the diseases. We used a multivariate generalised linear mixed model for analysis of genetic and environmental contributions to liability for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and comorbidity. Findings First-degree relatives of probands with either schizophrenia (n=35 985) or bipolar disorder (n=40 487) were at increased risk of these disorders. Half-siblings had a significantly increased risk (schizophrenia: relative risk [RR] 3.6, 95% CI 2.3-5.5 for maternal half-siblings, and 2.7, 1. 9-3 . 8 for paternal half-siblings; bipolar disorder: 4.5, 2.7-7.4 for maternal half-siblings, and 2.4, 1.4-4-1 for paternal half-siblings), but substantially lower than that of the full-siblings (schizophrenia: 9.0, 8.5-11 .6; bipolar disorder: 7.9, 7.1-8.8). When relatives of probands with bipolar disorder were analysed, increased risks for schizophrenia existed for all relationships, including adopted children to biological parents with bipolar disorder. Heritability for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder was 64% and 59%, respectively. Shared environmental effects were small but substantial (schizophrenia: 4.5%, 4.4%-7.4%; bipolar disorder: 3.4%, 2.3%-6.2%) for both disorders. The comorbidity between disorders was mainly (63%) due to additive genetic effects common to both disorders. Interpretation Similar to molecular genetic studies, we showed evidence that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder partly share a common genetic cause. These results challenge the current nosological dichotomy between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are consistent with a reappraisal of these disorders as distinct diagnostic entities. Funding Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, and the Swedish Research Council.
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