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1.
  • Duell, E. J., et al. (författare)
  • Menstrual and reproductive factors in women, genetic variation in CYP17A1, and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 132:9, s. 2164-2175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Menstrual and reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use have been investigated as pancreatic cancer risk factors in case-control and cohort studies, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective examination of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and pancreatic cancer risk (based on 304 cases) in 328,610 women from the EPIC cohort. Then, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort, we examined 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP17A1 (an essential gene in sex steroid metabolism) for association with pancreatic cancer in women and men (324 cases and 353 controls). Of all factors analyzed, only younger age at menarche (<12 vs. 13 years) was moderately associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the full cohort; however, this result was marginally significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99-2.10). CYP17A1 rs619824 was associated with HRT use (p value = 0.037) in control women; however, none of the SNPs alone, in combination, or as haplotypes were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, with the possible exception of an early age of menarche, none of the menstrual and reproductive factors, and none of the 12 common genetic variants we evaluated at the CYP17A1 locus makes a substantial contribution to pancreatic cancer susceptibility in the EPIC cohort. What's new Because the incidence of pancreatic cancer is 30-50% higher in men than women, researchers have wondered whether exposure to estrogen might offer a protective effect. The answer thus far has been unclear, however. In this study, the authors examined menstrual and reproductive factors in women, as well as exogenous hormone use. They also examined variants of the CYP17A1 gene in both women and men, as this gene is essential for sex-steroid metabolism. Only early age of menarche showed any association with pancreatic cancer risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.
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2.
  • Duell, E. J., et al. (författare)
  • Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 136:4, s. 880-893
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related to GC risk in a European population. The authors conducted an investigation of 32 variants at ABO and FUT1-7 loci and GC risk in a case-control study of 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the EPIC cohort (the EPIC-Eurgast study). Four variants (including rs505922) in ABO, and allelic blood group A (AO+AA, odds ratio=1.84, 95%CI=1.20-2.80) were associated with diffuse-type GC; however, conditional models with other ABO variants indicated that the associations were largely due to allelic blood group A. One variant in FUT5 was also associated with diffuse-type GC, and four variants (and haplotypes) in FUT2 (Se), FUT3 (Le) and FUT6 with intestinal-type GC. Further, one variant in ABO, two in FUT3 and two in FUT6 were associated with H. pylori infection status in controls, and two of these (in FUT3 and FUT6) were weakly associated with intestinal-type GC risk. None of the individual variants surpassed a Bonferroni corrected p-value cutoff of 0.0016; however, after a gene-based permutation test, two loci [FUT3(Le)/FUT5/FUT6 and FUT2(Se)] were significantly associated with diffuse- and intestinal-type GC, respectively. Replication and functional studies are therefore recommended to clarify the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis. What's New? Blood type A indicates a higher risk of gastric cancer, but why? This study examined the relationship between blood group genes and cancer. The authors investigated 32 variants among not only the ABO alleles, but also including the genes involved in producing the Lewis blood group antigens. They confirmed blood group A as a risk factor for diffuse-type gastric cancer, and also detected an association between certain Lewis antigen alleles and intestinal-type gastric cancer. Interestingly, these alleles also popped up among controls who harbored H. pylori infection. These associations certainly warrant further investigation into their role in gastric cancer.
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3.
  • Espinosa-Parrilla, Yolanda, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic association of gastric cancer with miRNA clusters including the cancer-related genes MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106: Results from the EPIC-EURGAST study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 135:9, s. 2065-2076
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators involved in a wide range of biological processes including tumorigenesis. Deregulation of miRNA pathways has been associated with cancer but the contribution of their genetic variability to this disorder is poorly known. We analyzed the genetic association of gastric cancer (GC) and its anatomical and histological subtypes, with 133 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 15 isolated miRNAs and 24 miRNA clusters potentially involved in cancer, in 365 GC cases and 1,284 matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Various SNPs were associated with GC under the log-additive model. Furthermore, several of these miRNAs passed the gene-based permutation test when analyzed according to GC subtypes: three tagSNPs of the miR-29a/miR-29b-1 cluster were associated with diffuse subtype (minimum p-value=1.7 x 10(-4); odds ratio, OR=1.72; 95% confidence interval, CI=1.30-2.28), two tagSNPs of the miR-25/miR-93/miR-106b cluster were associated with cardia GC (minimum p-value=5.38 x 10(-3); OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.37-0.86) and one tagSNP of the miR-363/miR-92a-2/miR-19b-2/miR-20b/miR-18b/miR-106a cluster was associated with noncardia GC (minimum p-value=5.40 x 10(-3); OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.12-1.78). Some functionally validated target genes of these miRNAs are implicated in cancer-related processes such as methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3B), cell cycle (E2F1, CDKN1A, CDKN1C), apoptosis (BCL2L11, MCL1), angiogenesis (VEGFA) and progression (PIK3R1, MYCN). Furthermore, we identified genetic interactions between variants tagging these miRNAs and variants in their validated target genes. Deregulation of the expression of these miRNAs in GC also supports our findings, altogether suggesting for the fist time that genetic variation in MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106b may have a critical role in genetic susceptibility to GC and could contribute to the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis.
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4.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 34:6, s. 1244-1250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested casecontrol study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI 1.031.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR 1.60, CI 1.162.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR 1.82, CI 1.272.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out.
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5.
  • Amundadottir, Laufey, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41, s. 986-990
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of pancreatic cancer, a cancer with one of the lowest survival rates worldwide. We genotyped 558,542 SNPs in 1,896 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 1,939 controls drawn from 12 prospective cohorts plus one hospital-based case-control study. We conducted a combined analysis of these groups plus an additional 2,457 affected individuals and 2,654 controls from eight case-control studies, adjusting for study, sex, ancestry and five principal components. We identified an association between a locus on 9q34 and pancreatic cancer marked by the SNP rs505922 (combined P = 5.37 x 10(-8); multiplicative per-allele odds ratio 1.20; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.28). This SNP maps to the first intron of the ABO blood group gene. Our results are consistent with earlier epidemiologic evidence suggesting that people with blood group O may have a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than those with groups A or B.
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6.
  • Barrdahl, Myrto, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive analysis of polymorphic variants in steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 metabolism and risk of in situ breast cancer : Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 142:6, s. 1182-1188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed the association between 1,414 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, and risk of breast cancer in situ (BCIS), with the aim of determining whether any of these were disease specific. This was carried out using 1,062 BCIS cases and 10,126 controls as well as 6,113 invasive breast cancer cases from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Three SNPs showed at least one nominally significant association in homozygous minor versus homozygous major models. ACVR2A-rs2382112 (ORhom=3.05, 95%CI=1.72-5.44, Phom=1.47 × 10-4), MAST2-rs12124649 (ORhom=1.73, 95% CI =1.18-2.54, Phom=5.24 × 10-3), and INSR-rs10500204 (ORhom=1.96, 95% CI=1.44-2.67, Phom=1.68 × 10-5) were associated with increased risk of BCIS; however, only the latter association was significant after correcting for multiple testing. Furthermore, INSR-rs10500204 was more strongly associated with the risk of BCIS than invasive disease in case-only analyses using the homozygous minor versus homozygous major model (ORhom=1.78, 95% CI=1.30-2.44, Phom=3.23 × 10-4). The SNP INSR-rs10500204 is located in an intron of the INSR gene and is likely to affect binding of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. The PML gene is known as a tumor suppressor and growth regulator in cancer. However, it is not clear on what pathway the A-allele of rs10500204 could operate to influence the binding of the protein. Hence, functional studies are warranted to investigate this further.
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7.
  • Barrdahl, Myrto, et al. (författare)
  • Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 137:12, s. 2837-2845
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele=0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend=2.84 x 10-4; HRheterozygotes=0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes=0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF=1.45 x 10-3). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend=6.6 x 10-4; HRheterozygotes=0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF=1.25 x 10-4). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662.What's new? Genetic factors are known to influence the risk of breast cancer, but inherited genetic variation may also affect disease prognosis and response to treatment. In this study, the we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are known to be associated with breast cancer risk might also influence the survival of breast-cancer patients. While two of the investigated SNPs may influence survival, there was otherwise no indication that SNP alleles related to breast cancer risk also play a role in the survival of breast cancer patients.
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8.
  • Campa, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide "pleiotropy scan'' does not identify new susceptibility loci for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:2, s. e85955-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approximately 15-30% of all breast cancer tumors are estrogen receptor negative (ER-). Compared with ER- positive (ER+) disease they have an earlier age at onset and worse prognosis. Despite the vast number of risk variants identified for numerous cancer types, only seven loci have been unambiguously identified for ER- negative breast cancer. With the aim of identifying new susceptibility SNPs for this disease we performed a pleiotropic genome-wide association study (GWAS). We selected 3079 SNPs associated with a human complex trait or disease at genome-wide significance level (P<5x10(-8)) to perform a secondary analysis of an ER- negative GWAS from the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), including 1998 cases and 2305 controls from prospective studies. We then tested the top ten associations (i.e. with the lowest P-values) using three additional populations with a total sample size of 3509 ER+ cases, 2543 ER- cases and 7031 healthy controls. None of the 3079 selected variants in the BPC3 ER- GWAS were significant at the adjusted threshold. 186 variants were associated with ER- breast cancer risk at a conventional threshold of P<0.05, with P-values ranging from 0.049 to 2.3 x 10(-4). None of the variants reached statistical significance in the replication phase. In conclusion, this study did not identify any novel susceptibility loci for ER-breast cancer using a "pleiotropic approach''.
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9.
  • Campa, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk variants associated with in situ breast cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Breast cancer in situ (BCIS) diagnoses, a precursor lesion for invasive breast cancer, comprise about 20 % of all breast cancers (BC) in countries with screening programs. Family history of BC is considered one of the strongest risk factors for BCIS.Methods: To evaluate the association of BC susceptibility loci with BCIS risk, we genotyped 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with risk of invasive BC, in 1317 BCIS cases, 10,645 invasive BC cases, and 14,006 healthy controls in the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Using unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age and study, we estimated the association of SNPs with BCIS using two different comparison groups: healthy controls and invasive BC subjects to investigate whether BCIS and BC share a common genetic profile.Results: We found that five SNPs (CDKN2BAS-rs1011970, FGFR2-rs3750817, FGFR2-rs2981582, TNRC9-rs3803662, 5p12-rs10941679) were significantly associated with BCIS risk (P value adjusted for multiple comparisons <0.0016). Comparing invasive BC and BCIS, the largest difference was for CDKN2BAS-rs1011970, which showed a positive association with BCIS (OR = 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.38, P = 1.27 x 10(-4)) and no association with invasive BC (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI: 0.99-1.07, P = 0.06), with a P value for case-case comparison of 0.006. Subgroup analyses investigating associations with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) found similar associations, albeit less significant (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI: 1.09-1.42, P = 1.07 x 10(-3)). Additional risk analyses showed significant associations with invasive disease at the 0.05 level for 28 of the alleles and the OR estimates were consistent with those reported by other studies.Conclusions: Our study adds to the knowledge that several of the known BC susceptibility loci are risk factors for both BCIS and invasive BC, with the possible exception of rs1011970, a putatively functional SNP situated in the CDKN2BAS gene that may be a specific BCIS susceptibility locus.
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10.
  • Campa, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • Leukocyte telomere length in relation to pancreatic cancer risk: a prospective study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755 .- 1055-9965. ; 23:11, s. 2447-2454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several studies have examined leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as a possible predictor for cancer at various organ sites. The hypothesis originally motivating many of these studies was that shorter telomeres would be associated with an increase in cancer risk, the results of epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, however, and suggested positive, negative, or null associations. Two studies have addressed the association of LTL in relation to pancreatic cancer risk and the results are contrasting. Methods: we measured LTL in a prospective study of 331 pancreatic cancer cases and 331 controls in the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Results: We observed that the mean LTL was higher in cases (0.59±0.20) than in controls (0.57±0.17), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.07), and a basic logistic regression model showed no association of LTL with pancreas cancer risk. When adjusting for levels of HbA1c and C-Peptide, however, there was a weakly positive association between longer LTL and pancreatic cancer risk , OR=1.13 (1.01-1.27). Additional analyses by cubic spline regression suggested a possible non-linear relationship between RTL and pancreatic cancer risk (P=0.022), with a statistically non-significant increase in risk at very low LTL, as well as a significant increase at high LTL. Conclusion: Taken together, the results from our study do not support LTL as a uniform and strong predictor of pancreatic cancer. Impact: The results of this manuscript can provide insights into telomere dynamics and highlight the complex relationship between LTL and pancreatic cancer risk.
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