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Sökning: WFRF:(Cao Renhai)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 19
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1.
  • Aase, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor-B-deficient mice display an atrial conduction defect
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. - 1524-4539. ; 104:3, s. 358-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors are essential regulators of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in both embryos and adults. One of the factors with a still unknown physiological function is VEGF-B, which is expressed in many tissues, including the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice carrying a targeted deletion in the VEGF-B gene were developed. In VEGF-B(-/-) animals, no gross abnormalities were observed in organs that normally show high expression of VEGF-B, such as the heart, muscle, and kidney. Analysis of heart function by ECG showed that adult VEGF-B(-/-) mice have an atrial conduction abnormality characterized by a prolonged PQ interval. VEGF- or basic fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal angiogenesis was similar in normal and VEGF-B(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-B seems to be required for normal heart function in adult animals but is not required for proper development of the cardiovascular system either during development or for angiogenesis in adults.
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2.
  • Ali, Zaheer, et al. (författare)
  • Intussusceptive Vascular Remodeling Precedes Pathological Neovascularization
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:7, s. 1402-1418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective—Pathological neovascularization is crucial for progression and morbidity of serious diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. While mechanisms of ongoing pathological neovascularization have been extensively studied, the initiating pathological vascular remodeling (PVR) events, which precede neovascularization remains poorly understood. Here, we identify novel molecular and cellular mechanisms of preneovascular PVR, by using the adult choriocapillaris as a model.Approach and Results—Using hypoxia or forced overexpression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in the subretinal space to induce PVR in zebrafish and rats respectively, and by analyzing choriocapillaris membranes adjacent to choroidal neovascular lesions from age-related macular degeneration patients, we show that the choriocapillaris undergo robust induction of vascular intussusception and permeability at preneovascular stages of PVR. This PVR response included endothelial cell proliferation, formation of endothelial luminal processes, extensive vesiculation and thickening of the endothelium, degradation of collagen fibers, and splitting of existing extravascular columns. RNA-sequencing established a role for endothelial tight junction disruption, cytoskeletal remodeling, vesicle- and cilium biogenesis in this process. Mechanistically, using genetic gain- and loss-of-function zebrafish models and analysis of primary human choriocapillaris endothelial cells, we determined that HIF (hypoxia-induced factor)-1α-VEGF-A-VEGFR2 signaling was important for hypoxia-induced PVR.Conclusions—Our findings reveal that PVR involving intussusception and splitting of extravascular columns, endothelial proliferation, vesiculation, fenestration, and thickening is induced before neovascularization, suggesting that identifying and targeting these processes may prevent development of advanced neovascular disease in the future.Visual Overview—An online visual overview is available for this article.
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3.
  • Cao, Renhai, et al. (författare)
  • Collaborative interplay between FGF-2 and VEGF-C promotes lymphangiogenesis and metastasis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 109:39, s. 15894-15899
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interplay between various lymphangiogenic factors in promoting lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis remains poorly understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and VEGF-C, two lymphangiogenic factors, collaboratively promote angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, leading to widespread pulmonary and lymph-node metastases. Coimplantation of dual factors in the mouse cornea resulted in additive angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. At the molecular level, we showed that FGFR-1 expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells is a crucial receptor that mediates the FGF-2-induced lymphangiogenesis. Intriguingly, the VEGFR-3-mediated signaling was required for the lymphatic tip cell formation in both FGF-2- and VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis. Consequently, a VEGFR-3-specific neutralizing antibody markedly inhibited FGF-2-induced lymphangiogenesis. Thus, the VEGFR-3-induced lymphatic endothelial cell tip cell formation is a prerequisite for FGF-2-stimulated lymphangiogenesis. In the tumor microenvironment, the reciprocal interplay between FGF-2 and VEGF-C collaboratively stimulated tumor growth, angiogenesis, intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, intervention and targeting of the FGF-2- and VEGF-C-induced angiogenic and lymphangiogenic synergism could be potentially important approaches for cancer therapy and prevention of metastasis.
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4.
  • Cao, Renhai, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoxia-Induced Retinal Angiogenesis in Zebrafish as a Model to Study Retinopathy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 3:7, s. e2748-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanistic understanding and defining novel therapeutic targets of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been hampered by a lack of appropriate adult animal models. Here we describe a simple and highly reproducible adult fli-EGFP transgenic zebrafish model to study retinal angiogenesis. The retinal vasculature in the adult zebrafish is highly organized and hypoxia-induced neovascularization occurs in a predictable area of capillary plexuses. New retinal vessels and vascular sprouts can be accurately measured and quantified. Orally active anti-VEGF agents including sunitinib and ZM323881 effectively block hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization. Intriguingly, blockage of the Notch signaling pathway by the inhibitor DAPT under hypoxia, results in a high density of arterial sprouting in all optical arteries. The Notch suppression-induced arterial sprouting is dependent on tissue hypoxia. However, in the presence of DAPT substantial endothelial tip cell formation was detected only in optic capillary plexuses under normoxia. These findings suggest that hypoxia shifts the vascular targets of Notch inhibitors. Our findings for the first time show a clinically relevant retinal angiogenesis model in adult zebrafish, which might serve as a platform for studying mechanisms of retinal angiogenesis, for defining novel therapeutic targets, and for screening of novel antiangiogenic drugs.
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5.
  • Cao, Renhai, et al. (författare)
  • Mouse corneal lymphangiogenesis model.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature protocols. - 1750-2799. ; 6:6, s. 817-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This protocol describes a powerful in vivo method to quantitatively study the formation of new lymphatic vessels in the avascular cornea without interference of pre-existing lymphatics. Implantation of 100 ng of lymphangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C or fibroblast growth factor-2, together with slow-release polymers, into a surgically created micropocket in the mouse cornea elicits a robust lymphangiogenic response. Newly formed lymphatic vessels are detected by immunohistochemical staining of the flattened corneal tissue with lymphatic endothelial-specific markers such as lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1; less-specific markers such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 may also be used. Lymphatic vessel growth in relation to hemangiogenesis can be readily detected starting at day 5 or 6 after pellet implantation and persists for ∼14 d. This protocol offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying lymphatic vessel formation, remodeling and function.
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6.
  • Iivanainen, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Intra- and extracellular signaling by endothelial neuregulin-1
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - 0014-4827 .- 1090-2422. ; 313:13, s. 2896-2909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Suppression of tumor growth by inhibition of ErbB receptor signaling is well documented. However, relatively little is known about the ErbB signaling system in the regulation of angiogenesis, a process necessary for tumor growth. We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is expressed by vascular endothelial cells (EC) and promotes endothelial recruitment of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). To assess whether other members of the EGF-family regulate angiogenesis, the expression of 10 EGF-like growth factors in primary ECs and SMCs was analyzed. In addition to HB-EGF, neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) was expressed in ECs in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial NRG-1 was constitutively processed to soluble extracellular and intracellular signaling fragments, and its expression was induced by hypoxia. NRG-1 was angiogenic in vivo in mouse corneal pocket and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. However, consistent with the lack of NRG-1 receptors in several primary EC lines, NRG-1 did not directly stimulate cellular responses in cultured ECs. In contrast, NRG-1 promoted EC responses in vitro and angiogenesis in CAM in vivo by mechanisms dependent on VEGF-A and VEGFR-2. These results indicate that NRG-1 is expressed by ECs and regulates angiogenesis by mechanisms involving paracrine up-regulation of VEGF-A.
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7.
  • Jensen, Lasse Dahl Ejby, et al. (författare)
  • Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 106:43, s. 18408-18413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The blood and lymphatic vasculatures are structurally and functionally coupled in controlling tissue perfusion, extracellular interstitial fluids, and immune surveillance. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of bloodlymphatic vessel connections and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO-induced vascular relaxation, which led to blood perfusion into the lymphatic system. NO blockage almost completely abrogated hypoxia-induced ALC relaxation and lymphatic perfusion. These findings uncover mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced oxygen compensation by perfusion of existing lymphatics in fish. Our results might also imply that the hypoxia-induced NO pathway contributes to development of progression of pathologies, including promotion of lymphatic metastasis by modulating arterial-lymphatic conduits, in the mammalian system.
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8.
  • Jensen, Lasse Dahl, et al. (författare)
  • In vivo angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis models
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Current molecular medicine. - : Bentham Science Publishers. - 1566-5240 .- 1875-5666. ; 9:8, s. 982-991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Angiogenesis research has become one of the most important areas in biomedical research. At the time of writing this review, there were approximately 3536 articles published in the year of 2008 alone on the topic of angiogenesis. The fast expansion of this research field demands development of rigorous, reliable, stable, convenient, and clinically relevant assay systems for disease diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic evaluation, drug discovery, and mechanistic studies at the molecular level. Here, we discuss several commonly used in vivo angiogenesis models by systematically analyzing and pointing out pitfalls of each assay. Owing to existence of numerous assays and the limitation of text, it is impossible to discuss all these assays in this article. Here we select several most commonly used angiogenesis assays performed in various species including mice, chicks and zebrafish for further in-depth discussion. We hope this information will be valuable for improving current angiogenesis research.
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9.
  • Kubo, Hajime, et al. (författare)
  • Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 signaling inhibits fibroblast growth factor-2-induced lymphangiogenesis in mouse cornea.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 99:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) is a major mediator of lymphangiogenesis. Recently, VEGFR-3 ligands, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were reported to promote tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, and these processes were inhibited by blocking of the VEGFR-3-signaling pathway. Here, we have adapted the mouse corneal angiogenesis assay to study potential lymphangiogenic factors and inhibitors. Immunohistochemical analysis with lymphatic endothelial markers showed that VEGF-C induces lymphatic as well as blood vessel growth in the cornea. By contrast, VEGF induced angiogenesis but not lymphangiogenesis. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) stimulated both lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. FGF-2 up-regulated VEGF-C expression in vascular endothelial and perivascular cells. Furthermore, administration of blocking anti-VEGFR-3 antibodies inhibited the FGF-2-induced lymphangiogenesis. These findings show that VEGFR-3 can mediate lymphangiogenesis induced by other growth factors. Because increased expression of FGF-2 and VEGF-C has been associated with lymphatic metastasis, our results provide a potential strategy for the inhibition of lymphatic metastasis in cancer therapy.
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10.
  • Nissen, Lars Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Angiogenic factors FGF2 and PDGF-BB synergistically promote murine tumor neovascularization and metastasis.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical investigation. - 0021-9738. ; 117:10, s. 2766-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tumors produce multiple growth factors, but little is known about the interplay between various angiogenic factors in promoting tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. Here we show that 2 angiogenic factors frequently upregulated in tumors, PDGF-BB and FGF2, synergistically promote tumor angiogenesis and pulmonary metastasis. Simultaneous overexpression of PDGF-BB and FGF2 in murine fibrosarcomas led to the formation of high-density primitive vascular plexuses, which were poorly coated with pericytes and VSMCs. Surprisingly, overexpression of PDGF-BB alone in tumor cells resulted in dissociation of VSMCs from tumor vessels and decreased recruitment of pericytes. In the absence of FGF2, capillary ECs lacked response to PDGF-BB. However, FGF2 triggers PDGFR-alpha and -beta expression at the transcriptional level in ECs, which acquire hyperresponsiveness to PDGF-BB. Similarly, PDGF-BB-treated VSMCs become responsive to FGF2 stimulation via upregulation of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) promoter activity. These findings demonstrate that PDGF-BB and FGF2 reciprocally increase their EC and mural cell responses, leading to disorganized neovascularization and metastasis. Our data suggest that intervention of this non-VEGF reciprocal interaction loop for the tumor vasculature could be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer and metastasis.
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