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  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
  • Cao, Renhai, et al. (författare)
  • Collaborative interplay between FGF-2 and VEGF-C promotes lymphangiogenesis and metastasis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 109:39, s. 15894-15899
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interplay between various lymphangiogenic factors in promoting lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis remains poorly understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and VEGF-C, two lymphangiogenic factors, collaboratively promote angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, leading to widespread pulmonary and lymph-node metastases. Coimplantation of dual factors in the mouse cornea resulted in additive angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. At the molecular level, we showed that FGFR-1 expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells is a crucial receptor that mediates the FGF-2-induced lymphangiogenesis. Intriguingly, the VEGFR-3-mediated signaling was required for the lymphatic tip cell formation in both FGF-2- and VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis. Consequently, a VEGFR-3-specific neutralizing antibody markedly inhibited FGF-2-induced lymphangiogenesis. Thus, the VEGFR-3-induced lymphatic endothelial cell tip cell formation is a prerequisite for FGF-2-stimulated lymphangiogenesis. In the tumor microenvironment, the reciprocal interplay between FGF-2 and VEGF-C collaboratively stimulated tumor growth, angiogenesis, intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, intervention and targeting of the FGF-2- and VEGF-C-induced angiogenic and lymphangiogenic synergism could be potentially important approaches for cancer therapy and prevention of metastasis.
  • Cao, Renhai, et al. (författare)
  • Mouse corneal lymphangiogenesis model.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature protocols. - 1750-2799. ; 6:6, s. 817-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This protocol describes a powerful in vivo method to quantitatively study the formation of new lymphatic vessels in the avascular cornea without interference of pre-existing lymphatics. Implantation of 100 ng of lymphangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C or fibroblast growth factor-2, together with slow-release polymers, into a surgically created micropocket in the mouse cornea elicits a robust lymphangiogenic response. Newly formed lymphatic vessels are detected by immunohistochemical staining of the flattened corneal tissue with lymphatic endothelial-specific markers such as lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1; less-specific markers such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 may also be used. Lymphatic vessel growth in relation to hemangiogenesis can be readily detected starting at day 5 or 6 after pellet implantation and persists for ∼14 d. This protocol offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying lymphatic vessel formation, remodeling and function.
  • Dahl Jensen, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Opposing Effects of Circadian Clock Genes Bmal1 and Period2 in Regulation of VEGF-Dependent Angiogenesis in Developing Zebrafish
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - : Elsevier (Cell Press). - 2211-1247. ; 2:2, s. 231-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular mechanisms underlying circadian-regulated physiological processes remain largely unknown. Here, we show that disruption of the circadian clock by both constant exposure to light and genetic manipulation of key genes in zebrafish led to impaired developmental angiogenesis. A bmal1-specific morpholino inhibited developmental angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos without causing obvious nonvascular phenotypes. Conversely, a period2 morpholino accelerated angiogenic vessel growth, suggesting that Bmal1 and Period2 display opposing angiogenic effects. Using a promoter-reporter system consisting of various deleted vegf-promoter mutants, we show that Bmal1 directly binds to and activates the vegf promoter via E-boxes. Additionally, we provide evidence that knockdown of Bmal1 leads to impaired Notch-inhibition-induced vascular sprouting. These results shed mechanistic insight on the role of the circadian clock in regulation of developmental angiogenesis, and our findings may be reasonably extended to other types of physiological or pathological angiogenesis.
  • He, Xingkang, et al. (författare)
  • Visualization of human T lymphocyte-mediated eradication of cancer cells in vivo
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : NATL ACAD SCIENCES. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 117:37, s. 22910-22919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lymphocyte-based immunotherapy has emerged as a break-through in cancer therapy for both hematologic and solid malignancies. In a subpopulation of cancer patients, this powerful therapeutic modality converts malignancy to clinically manageable disease. However, the T cell- and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell-mediated antimetastatic activity, especially their impacts on microscopic metastatic lesions, has not yet been investigated. Here we report a living zebrafish model that allows us to visualize the metastatic cancer cell killing effect by tumor- infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CAR-T cells in vivo at the single-cell level. In a freshly isolated primary human melanoma, specific TILs effectively eliminated metastatic cancer cells in the living body. This potent metastasis-eradicating effect was validated using a human lymphoma model with CAR-T cells. Furthermore, cancer-associated fibroblasts protected metastatic cancer cells from T cell-mediated killing. Our data provide an in vivo platform to validate antimetastatic effects by human T cell-mediated immunotherapy. This unique technology may serve as a precision medicine platform for assessing anticancer effects of cellular immunotherapy in vivo before administration to human cancer patients.
  • Yang, Xiaojuan, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent spatiotemporal dual roles of placental growth factor in modulation of angiogenesis and tumor growth
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 110:34, s. 13932-13937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Placental growth factor (PIGF) remodels tumor vasculatures toward a normalized phenotype, which affects tumor growth, invasion and drug responses. However, the coordinative and spatiotemporal relation between PIGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor angiogenesis and vascular remodeling is less understood. Here we report that PlGF positively and negatively modulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through a VEGF-dependent mechanism. In two independent tumor models, we show that PlGF inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis and displayed a marked vascular remodeling effect, leading to normalized microvessels with infrequent vascular branches and increased perivascular cell coverage. Surprisingly, elimination of VEGF gene (i.e., VEGF-null) in PIGF-expressing tumors resulted in (i) accelerated tumor growth rates and angiogenesis and (ii) complete attenuation of PIGF-induced vascular normalization. Thus, PIGF positively and negatively modulates tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through VEGF-dependent spatiotemporal mechanisms. Our data uncover molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between PIGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and have conceptual implication for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.
  • Yang, Xiaojuan, et al. (författare)
  • VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A-independent mechanism and serves as a marker of poor prognosis for cancer patients
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 112:22, s. E2900-E2909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The biological functions of VEGF-B in cancer progression remain poorly understood. Here, we report that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through the remodeling of tumor microvasculature. Knockdown of VEGF-B in tumors resulted in increased perivascular cell coverage and impaired pulmonary metastasis of human melanomas. In contrast, the gain of VEGF-B function in tumors led to pseudonormalized tumor vasculatures that were highly leaky and poorly perfused. Tumors expressing high levels of VEGF-B were more metastatic, although primary tumor growth was largely impaired. Similarly, VEGF-B in a VEGF-A-null tumor resulted in attenuated primary tumor growth but substantial pulmonary metastases. VEGF-B also led to highly metastatic phenotypes in Vegfr1 tk(-/-) mice and mice treated with anti-VEGF-A. These data indicate that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A-independent mechanism. High expression levels of VEGF-B in two large-cohort studies of human patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma correlated with poor survival. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that VEGF-B is a vascular remodeling factor promoting cancer metastasis and that targeting VEGF-B may be an important therapeutic approach for cancer metastasis.
  • Yang, Yunlong, et al. (författare)
  • Anti-VEGF- and anti-VEGF receptor-induced vascular alteration in mouse healthy tissues
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 110:29, s. 12018-12023
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic therapy with anti-VEGF drugs such as bevacizumab is widely used for treatment of human patients with various solid tumors. However, systemic impacts of such drugs in host healthy vasculatures remain poorly understood. Here, we show that, in mice, systemic delivery of an anti-VEGF or an anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 neutralizing antibody caused global vascular regression. Among all examined tissues, vasculatures in endocrine glands, intestinal villi, and uterus are the most affected in response to VEGF or VEGFR-2 blockades. Thyroid vascular fenestrations were virtually completely blocked by VEGF blockade, leading to marked accumulation of intraendothelial caveolae vesicles. VEGF blockade markedly increased thyroid endothelial cell apoptosis, and withdrawal of anti-VEGF resulted in full recovery of vascular density and architecture after 14 d. Prolonged anti-VEGF treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the circulating level of the predominant thyroid hormone free thyroxine, but not the minimal isoform of triiodothyronine, suggesting that chronic anti-VEGF treatment impairs thyroid functions. Conversely, VEGFR-1-specific blockade produced virtually no obvious phenotypes. These findings provide structural and functional bases of anti-VEGF-specific drug-induced side effects in relation to vascular changes in healthy tissues. Understanding anti-VEGF drug-induced vascular alterations in healthy tissues is crucial to minimize and even to avoid adverse effects produced by currently used anti-VEGF-specific drugs.
  • Yang, Yunlong, et al. (författare)
  • The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7:11385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Signalling molecules and pathways that mediate crosstalk between various tumour cellular compartments in cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. We report a mechanism of the interaction between perivascular cells and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting metastasis through the IL-33-ST2-dependent pathway in xenograft mouse models of cancer. IL-33 is the highest upregulated gene through activation of SOX7 transcription factor in PDGF-BB-stimulated pericytes. Gain-and loss-of-function experiments validate that IL-33 promotes metastasis through recruitment of TAMs. Pharmacological inhibition of the IL-33-ST2 signalling by a soluble ST2 significantly inhibits TAMs and metastasis. Genetic deletion of host IL-33 in mice also blocks PDGF-BB-induced TAM recruitment and metastasis. These findings shed light on the role of tumour stroma in promoting metastasis and have therapeutic implications for cancer therapy.
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