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Sökning: WFRF:(Capdevila Jaume)

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1.
  • Bahadoer, Renu R., et al. (författare)
  • Short-course radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy before total mesorectal excision (TME) versus preoperative chemoradiotherapy, TME, and optional adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer (RAPIDO) : a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 22:1, s. 29-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Systemic relapses remain a major problem in locally advanced rectal cancer. Using short-course radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy and delayed surgery, the Rectal cancer And Preoperative Induction therapy followed by Dedicated Operation (RAPIDO) trial aimed to reduce distant metastases without compromising locoregional control. Methods In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial, participants were recruited from 54 centres in the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain, Slovenia, Denmark, Norway, and the USA. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, had a biopsy-proven, newly diagnosed, primary, locally advanced rectal adenocardnoma, which was classified as high risk on pelvic MRI (with at least one of the following criteria: clinical tumour [cT] stage cT4a or cT4b, extramural vascular invasion, clinical nodal [cN] stage cN2, involved mesorectal fascia, or enlarged lateral lymph nodes), were mentally and physically fit for chemotherapy, and could be assessed for staging within S weeks before randomisation. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1), using a management system with a randomly varying block design (each block size randomly chosen to contain two to four allocations), stratified by centre, ECOG performance status, cT stage, and cN stage, to either the experimental or standard of care group. All investigators remained masked for the primary endpoint until a prespecified number of events was reached. Patients allocated to the experimental treatment group received short-course radiotherapy (5 x 5 Gy over a maximum of 8 days) followed by six cycles of CAPDX chemotherapy (capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) orally twice daily on days 1-14, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1, and a chemotherapy-free interval between days 15-21) or nine cycles of FOLFOX4 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1, leucovorin [folinic acid] 200 mg/m 2 intravenously on days 1 and 2, followed by bolus fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) intravenously and fluorouracil 600 mg/m 2 intravenously for 22 h on days 1 and 2, and a chemotherapy-free interval between days 3-14) followed by total mesorectal excision. Choice of CAPDX or FOLFOX4 was per physician discretion or hospital policy. Patients allocated to the standard of care group received 28 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy up to 50.4 Gy or 25 fractions of 2.0 Gy up to 50.0 Gy (per physician discretion or hospital policy), with concomitant twice-daily oral capecitabine 825 mg/m(2) followed by total mesorectal excision and, if stipulated by hospital policy, adjuvant chemotherapy with eight cycles of CAPDX or 12 cycles of FOLFOX4. The primary endpoint was 3-year disease-related treatment failure, defined as the first occurrence of locoregional failure, distant metastasis, new primary colorectal tumour, or treatment-related death, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed by intention to treat. This study is registered with the EudraCT, 2010-023957-12, and ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01558921, and is now complete. Findings Between June 21,2011, and June 2,2016,920 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment, of whom 912 were eligible (462 in the experimental group; 450 in the standard of care group). Median follow-up was 4.6 years (IQR 3.5-5.5). At 3 years after randomisation, the cumulative probability of disease-related treatment failure was 23.7% (95% CI 19.8-27.6) in the experimental group versus 30.4% (26.1-34.6) in the standard of care group (hazard ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0-95; p=0-019). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse event during preoperative therapy in both groups was diarrhoea (81 [18%] of 460 patients in the experimental group and 41 [9%] of 441 in the standard of care group) and neurological toxicity during adjuvant chemotherapy in the standard of care group (16 [9%] of 187 patients). Serious adverse events occurred in 177 (38%) of 460 participants in the experimental group and, in the standard of care group, in 87 (34%) of 254 patients without adjuvant chemotherapy and in 64 (34%) of 187 with adjuvant chemotherapy. Treatment-related deaths occurred in four participants in the experimental group (one cardiac arrest, one pulmonary embolism, two infectious complications) and in four participants in the standard of care group (one pulmonary embolism, one neutropenic sepsis, one aspiration, one suicide due to severe depression). Interpretation The observed decreased probability of disease-related treatment failure in the experimental group is probably indicative of the increased efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy as opposed to adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting. Therefore, the experimental treatment can be considered as a new standard of care in high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer.
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2.
  • van der Valk, Maxime J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Compliance and tolerability of short-course radiotherapy followed by preoperative chemotherapy and surgery for high-risk rectal cancer - Results of the international randomized RAPIDO-trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 147, s. 75-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision is widely accepted as the standard of care for high-risk rectal cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is advised in several international guidelines, although the survival benefit remains unclear and compliance is poor. The current multidisciplinary approach has led to major improvements in local control, yet the occurrence of distant metastases has not decreased accordingly. The combination of short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) and chemotherapy in the waiting period before surgery might have several benefits, including higher compliance, downstaging and better effect of systemic therapy. Methods: This is an investigator-initiated, international multicentre randomized phase III trial. High-risk rectal cancer patients were randomized to SCRT followed by chemotherapy (6 cycles CAPOX or alternatively 9 cycles FOLFOX4) and subsequent surgery, or long-course radiotherapy (25-28 x 2-1.8 Gy) with concomitant capecitabine followed by surgery and optional postoperative chemotherapy (8 cycles CAPOX or 12 cycles FOLFOX4) according to local institutions' policy. The primary endpoint is time to disease related treatment failure. Here, we report the compliance, toxicity and postoperative complications in both study groups. Findings: Between June 2011 and June 2016, 920 patients were enrolled. Of these, 901 were evaluable (460 in the experimental arm and 441 in the standard arm). All patients in the experimental arm received 5 x 5 Gy radiotherapy, and 84% of all patients received at least 75% of the prescribed chemotherapy. In the standard arm, the compliance for CRT was 93% and 58% for postoperative chemotherapy. Toxicity >= grade 3 occurred in 48% of patients in the experimental arm, compared to 25% of patients in the standard arm during preoperative treatment and 35% of patients during postoperative chemotherapy. No statistically significant differences in surgical procedures or postoperative complications were observed. Interpretation: High compliance (84%) of preoperative systemic treatment could be achieved with the experimental approach. Although considerable toxicity was observed during preoperative therapy, this did not lead to differences in surgical procedures or postoperative complications. Longer follow-up time is needed to assess the primary endpoint and related outcomes. (c) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 147 (2020) 75-83
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3.
  • Ambrosini, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus on molecular imaging and theranostics in neuroendocrine neoplasms
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 146, s. 56-73
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear medicine plays an increasingly important role in the management neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Somatostatin analogue (SSA)-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) have been used in clinical trials and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Focus 3 performed a multidisciplinary Delphi process to deliver a balanced perspective on molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). NETs form in cells that interact with the nervous system or in glands that produce hormones. These cells, called neuroendocrine cells, can be found throughout the body, but NETs are most often found in the abdomen, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumours may also be found in the lungs, pancreas and adrenal glands. In addition to being rare, NETs are also complex and may be difficult to diagnose. Most NETs are non-functioning; however, a minority present with symptoms related to hypersecretion of bioactive compounds. NETs often do not cause symptoms early in the disease process. When diagnosed, substantial number of patients are already found to have metastatic disease. Several societies' guidelines address Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) management; however, many issues are still debated, due to both the difficulty in acquiring strong clinical evidence in a rare and heterogeneous disease and the different availability of diagnostic and therapeutic options across countries. EANM Focus 3 reached consensus on employing 68gallium-labelled somatostatin analogue ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA)-based PET/CT with diagnostic CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unknown primary NET detection, metastatic NET, NET staging/restaging, suspected extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suspected paraganglioma. Consensus was reached on employing 18fluorine-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT in neuroendocrine carcinoma, G3 NET and in G1-2 NET with mismatched lesions (CT-positive/[68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA-negative). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) was recommended for second line treatment for gastrointestinal NET with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA uptake in all lesions, in G1/G2 NET at disease progression, and in a subset of G3 NET provided all lesions are positive at [18F]FDG and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA. PRRT rechallenge may be used for in patients with stable disease for at least 1 year after therapy completion. An international consensus is not only a prelude to a more standardised management across countries but also serves as a guide for the direction to follow when designing new research studies.
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4.
  • Capdevila, Jaume, et al. (författare)
  • Unmet Medical Needs in Metastatic Lung and Digestive Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 108:1, s. 18-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unmet medical needs are not infrequent in oncology, and these needs are usually of higher magnitude in rare cancers. The field of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has evolved rapidly during the last decade, and, currently, a new WHO classification is being implemented and several treatment options are available in the metastatic setting after the results of prospective phase III clinical trials. However, several questions are still unanswered, and decisions in our daily clinical practice should be made with limited evidence. In the 2016 meeting of the advisory board of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS), the main unmet medical needs in the metastatic NENs setting were deeply discussed, and several proposals to try to solve them are presented in this article, including biomarkers, imaging, and therapy.
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5.
  • de Herder, Wouter W, et al. (författare)
  • Unmet Needs in the Field of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas, and Respiratory System : Reports by the ENETS Group.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 108:1, s. 5-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On the 10th and 11th of November 2016, 54 international experts in the field of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and respiratory system met in Munich, Germany, to discuss and determine unmet needs in this field. The participating experts were Advisory Board members and invited guests of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS). The Board members were medical specialists with different clinical or preclinical backgrounds, basic scientists, specialized nurses, and patient representatives.According to the Oxford dictionary, “unmet” refers to something (here, a need) which has not been achieved or fulfilled. The NEN expert subgroups succeeded in producing 6 reports on what they identified as the most relevant unmet needs in NEN. They identified several limitations of the current tumor classification, grading, and staging systems for almost all NEN subtypes.Apart from the historical separation regarding origin into foregut, midgut, and hindgut, other subentities have now been recognized, each requiring a more tailored approach. There is still a general lack of predictive and prognostic markers, in samples of both tumor tissue and surrogate tissues such as the blood. Tumor visualization making use of radiology and nuclear medicine has seen impressive advances in recent years. However, with regard to determining tumor (metastases) responses, there is still debate as to how best to achieve this with different imaging modalities.In spite of more treatment options (locoregional and systemic) being available for metastatic NENs, help is needed to select appropriate treatment strategies (sequencing) and there is also a need for more effective treatments. For some tumor entities, watchful waiting might be considered (e.g., in the case of small pancreatic NENs) but, again, the lack of reliable markers makes it difficult to decide which tumors should undergo resection and which should be monitored only. There are currently no registered or approved adjuvant treatment options for the period after curative resection of some of the isolated or locally advanced NENs (e.g., of the pancreas, appendix, and rectum). It is also unclear which patients might benefit from adjuvant treatment. The follow-up of patients with NENs remains a poorly studied area and is based on loose empirical international guidelines or institutional opinion.All of these unmet needs in the field of NENs exponentially increase the complexity of conducting well-designed clinical and translational studies to resolve these issues, with multidisciplinary and international efforts such as the current one led by ENETS being the only way to move forward. We invite all Readers of Neuroendocrinology interested in the field of NENs to study the series of 6 articles reporting on unmet needs in the field of NENs
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6.
  • Dewdney, Alice, et al. (författare)
  • Multicenter Randomized Phase II Clinical Trial Comparing Neoadjuvant Oxaliplatin, Capecitabine, and Preoperative Radiotherapy With or Without Cetuximab Followed by Total Mesorectal Excision in Patients With High-Risk Rectal Cancer (EXPERT-C)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 30:14, s. 1620-1627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To evaluate the addition of cetuximab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy before chemoradiotherapy in high-risk rectal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with operable magnetic resonance imaging-defined high-risk rectal cancer received four cycles of capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CAPOX) followed by capecitabine chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant CAPOX (four cycles) or the same regimen plus weekly cetuximab (CAPOX + C). The primary end point was complete response (CR; pathologic CR or, in patients not undergoing surgery, radiologic CR) in patients with KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumors. Secondary end points were radiologic response (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety in the wild-type and overall populations and a molecular biomarker analysis. Results One hundred sixty-five eligible patients were randomly assigned. Ninety (60%) of 149 assessable tumors were KRAS or BRAF wild type (CAPOX, n = 44; CAPOX + C, n = 46), and in these patients, the addition of cetuximab did not improve the primary end point of CR (9% v 11%, respectively; P = 1.0; odds ratio, 1.22) or PFS (hazard ratio [ HR], 0.65; P = .363). Cetuximab significantly improved RR (CAPOX v CAPOX + C: after chemotherapy, 51% v 71%, respectively; P = .038; after chemoradiation, 75% v 93%, respectively; P = .028) and OS (HR, 0.27; P = .034). Skin toxicity and diarrhea were more frequent in the CAPOX + C arm. Conclusion Cetuximab led to a significant increase in RR and OS in patients with KRAS/BRAF wild-type rectal cancer, but the primary end point of improved CR was not met.
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7.
  • Rodriguez-Freixinos, Victor, et al. (författare)
  • Practical recommendations for the management of patients with gastroenteropancreatic and thoracic (carcinoid) neuroendocrine neoplasms in the COVID-19 era
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 144, s. 200-214
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous family of uncommon tumours with challenging diagnosis, clinical management and unique needs that almost always requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the absence of guidance from the scientific literature, along with the rapidly changing data available on the effect of COVID-19, we report how 12 high-volume NEN centres of expertise in 10 countries at different stages of the evolving COVID-19 global pandemic along with members of international neuroendocrine cancer patient societies have suggested to preserve high standards of care for patients with NENs. We review the multidisciplinary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and we suggest potential strategies to reduce risk and aid multidisciplinary treatment decision-making. By sharing our joint experiences, we aim to generate recommendations for proceeding to other institutions facing the same challenges. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Salazar, Ramon, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ColoPrint risk classification with clinical risk in the prospective PARSC trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - Inst Catala Oncol, Early Clin Res Unit, Lhospitalet Barcelona, Spain. Vall dHebron Univ Hosp, Barcelona, Spain. Kantonsspital Baden, Dept Surg, Baden, Switzerland. Akad Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden. Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn, Netherlands. Inst Canc Montpelier, Dept Pathol, Montpellier, France. Med Spectrum Twente, Enschede, Netherlands. Univ Texas MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Houston, TX 77030 USA. Med Ctr Alkmaar, Alkmaar, Netherlands. Med Univ Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Univ Oxford, Dept Oncol, Oxford, England. Wake Forest Univ, Bowman Gray Sch Med, Winston Salem, NC USA. Matsuda Hosp, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan. Acad Teaching Hosp, Linz, Austria. South Orange Cty Surg Med Grp, Laguna Hills, CA USA. Norfolk & Norwich Univ Hosp NHS FT, Norwich, Norfolk, England. Univ Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hosp, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China. Long Beach Mem Med Ctr, Long Beach, CA USA. Agendia, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Georgetown Univ, Lombardi Comprehens Canc Ctr, Washington, DC USA.. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 32:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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10.
  • Sclafani, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations in a large prospective series of locally advanced rectal cancer patients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 146:1, s. 94-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little information is available on the clinical significance of cancer-related genes such as KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and TP53 in nonmetastatic rectal cancer. We investigated mutations of these genes in a large prospective series of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients who were recruited into two phase II trials. Mutational analyses were performed with diagnostically validated methods including polymerase chain reaction, capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational analysis, Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing. Associations between single or multiple gene mutations and clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were explored. Of these 269, 210 (78%) patients were assessable. Mutations of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and TP53 occurred in 43, 9, 4, 9 and 60% of patients, respectively. Concordance between paired biopsy and resection specimens was 82% for KRAS, 95% for NRAS, 99% for BRAF, 96% for PIK3CA and 63% for TP53. TP53 mutations were associated with extramural venous invasion on baseline MRI (78% vs. 65%, p = 0.04), poor pathological tumour regression (23% vs. 36%, p = 0.05) and a trend toward a worse 5-year progression-free survival (PFS; 60% vs. 74%, HR 1.59, p = 0.06). Patients with tumours harbouring mutation of TP53 and either KRAS or NRAS (32%) had a worse 5-year PFS than those with TP53/KRAS/NRAS wild-type tumours (54% vs. 72%, HR 1.75, p = 0.02). In univariate analysis, BRAF mutation predicted poor 5-year overall survival only among patients treated without cetuximab (20% vs. 73%, HR 3.29, p = 0.03). This is one of the largest biomarker studies in a prospective, largely homogeneous, LARC population. Our findings are hypothesis generating and require validation in independent series.
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