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Sökning: WFRF:(Carcaillet Christopher)

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1.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
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2.
  • Keech, Olivier, et al. (författare)
  • Adsorption of allelopathic compounds by wood-derived charcoal : the role of wood porosity
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Plant and Soil. - 0032-079X .- 1573-5036. ; 272:1-2, s. 291-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Swedish boreal forests, areas dominated by the dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup are known for their poor regeneration of trees and one of the causes of this poor regeneration has been attributed to allelopathy (i.e. chemical interferences) by E. hermaphroditum. Fire-produced charcoal is suggested to play an important role in rejuvenating those ecosystems by adsorbing allelopathic compounds, such as phenols, released by E. hermaphroditum. In this study, we firstly investigated whether the adsorption capacity of charcoal of different plant species varies according to the wood anatomical structures of these, and secondly we tried to relate the adsorption capacity to wood anatomical structure. Charcoal was produced from eight boreal and one temperate woody plant species and the adsorption capacity of charcoal was tested by bioassays technique. Seed germination was used as a measurement of the ability of charcoal to adsorb allelochemicals. The charcoal porosity was estimated and the pore size distribution was then calculated in order to relate the wood anatomical features to the adsorption capacity. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of charcoal was significantly different between plant species and that deciduous trees had a significantly higher adsorption capacity than conifers and ericaceous species. The presence of macro-pores rather than a high porosity appears to be the most important for the adsorption capacity. These results suggest that fire-produced charcoal has different ability to adsorb phenols in boreal forest soil, and therefore may have differing effects on the germination of seeds of establishing tree seedlings.
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4.
  • Molinari, Chiara, et al. (författare)
  • Fire-vegetation interactions during the last 11,000 years in boreal and cold temperate forests of Fennoscandia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0277-3791. ; 241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The long-term ecological interactions between fire and the composition of dominant trees and shrubs in boreal and cold temperate Fennoscandian forests are still under discussion. We hypothesized that fire-prone taxa should abound during periods and regions characterized by higher fire disturbance, while fire-intolerant taxa should dominate when and where fire activity is low. Biomass burning (BB) is here investigated based on 69 sedimentary charcoal records. For the same sites, the relative contribution of pollen-based reconstructions of dominant vegetation cover divided into three different fire-sensitivity classes is explored by means of a statistical approach. The overall patterns found across Fennoscandia suggest that Ericaceae (mainly Calluna), Pinus, Betula and Populus are strongly positively correlated with multi-millennial variability of BB in both boreal and cold temperate forests, confirming their fire-prone character (taxa adapted/favoured by burning). Positive but much weaker (and not always significant) relationships also exist between long-term trends in BB and Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Alnus, Juniperus, Carpinus and Salix, fire-tolerant taxa that survive low/moderate intense fires because of specific functional traits or their rapid, enhanced regeneration after fire. A strong negative significant correlation is instead detected between BB and Picea, Ulmus Tilia, Fraxinus, which are fire-intolerant taxa and can locally disappear for a short time after a fire. This large-scale analysis supports our initial hypothesis that tree and shrub dominance was closely linked to biomass burning since the onset of the Holocene in the study regions. Fire was an important ecosystem disturbance in Fennoscandia influencing long-term vegetation dynamics and composition over the last 11,000 years, although human activities probably altered the strength of fire-vegetation interactions during more recent millennia.
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6.
  • Molinari, Chiara, et al. (författare)
  • The climate, the fuel and the land use: long-term regional variability of biomass burning in boreal forests
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2486. ; 24:10, s. 4929-4945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The influence of different drivers on changes in North American and European boreal forests biomass burning (BB) during the Holocene was investigated based on the following hypotheses: land use was important only in the southernmost regions, while elsewhere climate was the main driver modulated by changes in fuel type. BB was reconstructed by means of 88 sedimentary charcoal records divided into six different site clusters. A statistical approach was used to explore the relative contribution of (a) pollen‐based mean July/summer temperature and mean annual precipitation reconstructions, (b) an independent model‐based scenario of past land use (LU), and (c) pollen‐based reconstructions of plant functional types (PFTs) on BB. Our hypotheses were tested with: (a) a west‐east northern boreal sector with changing climatic conditions and a homogeneous vegetation, and (b) a north‐south European boreal sector characterized by gradual variation in both climate and vegetation composition. The processes driving BB in boreal forests varied from one region to another during the Holocene. However, general trends in boreal biomass burning were primarily controlled by changes in climate (mean annual precipitation in Alaska, northern Quebec, and northern Fennoscandia, and mean July/summer temperature in central Canada and central Fennoscandia) and, secondarily, by fuel composition (BB positively correlated with the presence of boreal needleleaf evergreentrees in Alaska and in central and southern Fennoscandia). Land use playedonly a marginal role. A modification towards less flammable tree species (by promoting deciduous stands over fire‐prone conifers) could contribute to reduce circumboreal wildfire risk in future warmer periods.
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