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1.
  • Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G, et al. (författare)
  • Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical and translational allergy. - 2045-7022. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) patients' organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels.Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into more coherent, uniform and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein.
2.
  • Senti, Gabriela, et al. (författare)
  • Intralymphatic Immunotherapy : : Update and Unmet Needs
  • ????
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. - Karger. - 1018-2438.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only allergy treatment that confers long-term symptom amelioration for patients suffering from allergy. The most frequently used allergen application route is subcutaneous injection (SCIT), commonly taken as the gold standard, followed by sublingual (SLIT) or oral (OIT) application of allergen preparations. This is an up-to-date review of the clinical evidence for a novel route of allergen application, i.e., directly into lymph nodes - intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT). The major advantages of ILIT over the current AIT approaches are its short duration and the low allergen doses administered. The whole treatment consists of merely 3 ultrasound-guided injections into inguinal lymph nodes 1 month apart. While the number of patients included in randomised controlled trials is still limited, the clinical results for ILIT are encouraging, but more clinical trials are needed, as well as more preclinical work for optimising formulations.
3.
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4.
  • Adner, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Contractile endothelin-B (ETB) receptors in human small bronchi
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Eur Respiratory Soc. - 1399-3003. ; 9:2, s. 351-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endothelins (ETs) are a family of novel regulatory peptides and various lines of evidence suggest an important role for ETs in regulating pulmonary function. Two receptors for endothelin, ETA and ETB, have been found in the human lung, and according to recent studies a non-ETA receptor seems to mediate the contraction of large sized human bronchi. Several studies have emphasized the importance of small bronchi in the pathogenesis of airway disease. In the present paper, improved methodology was used which enables in vitro studies of small human bronchi down to a diameter of 0.5-1.0 mm. Using the new methodology we have tried to further characterize this receptor. Small bronchi from the distal parts of the bronchial tree were obtained from pulmonary tissue removed from 15 patients with lung cancer. They were dissected and cut into ring segments, in which isometric tension was recorded. ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 elicited strong concentration-dependent contractions of the human small bronchus. Basically, the three peptides were equipotent with about the same maximal response. Upon reapplication, they all showed the same tachyphylaxis pattern, reaching half the initial contraction. Comparative analysis of IRL 1620, a selective ETB receptor agonist, revealed that the effect of the ETB agonist was, in all respects, similar to the responses induced by the ETs. PD 145065, a combined ETA/ETB receptor antagonist competitively inhibited the contractions induced by IRL 1620, whereas FR139317, a selective ETA receptor antagonist, was without effect. In conclusion, the present study shows that accurate measurements can be made in vitro on small human bronchi and all present data are in favour of an ETB receptor mediating endothelin-induced contraction of human bronchi smaller than 1.0 mm.
5.
  • Adner, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Regional variation in appearance of vascular contractile endothelin-B receptors following organ culture
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Research. - Elsevier. - 1755-3245. ; 37:1, s. 254-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the appearance of contractile endothelin (ET)-B receptors following organ culture in different vascular regions. METHOD: The contractile responses of vascular smooth muscle induced by ET-1 and the selective ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) were investigated in circular segments representing eight vascular regions in the rat (aorta, femoral artery, mesenteric artery, branch of the mesenteric artery, proximal and distal parts of the caudal artery, femoral and mesenteric veins). To allow the ETB receptor to be expressed, the segments were placed in organ culture for 1 to 5 days. Pharmacological characterisation of the ET receptors was performed in mesenteric arterial segments. All contractile responses were measured in percentage of K(+)-induced contraction. RESULTS: ET-1 induced strong concentration-dependent contractions of all fresh (not cultured) segments. S6c had negligible effects on all fresh vessels with the exception of the mesenteric vein, where a small contraction was seen. After 1 day of organ culture all tested segments, with the exception of aorta and the proximal part of the caudal artery, showed concentration-dependent contractile responses to S6c which were further augmented after 5 days of culture. The ET-1-induced responses were only slightly affected by organ culture. Contractions induced by S6c were more enhanced in small arteries and veins than in larger arteries. Furthermore, the S6c-induced response was more pronounced in the mesenteric region as compared to the hindlimb. In fresh mesenteric arterial segments FR139317 (ETA receptor antagonist) and bosentan (ETA/ETB receptor antagonist) but not IRL 2500 (ETB receptor antagonist) shifted the ET-1-induced concentration-response curve in parallel to the right. In contrast, after organ culture the S6c-induced concentration-response curves were shifted parallel to the right in the following potency order: IRL 2500 > bosentan > FR139317. CONCLUSION: During normal conditions, the ETA receptor is the dominating mediator of endothelin-induced contraction in eight different vascular regions. Furthermore, this study indicates that most of the vessels have the ability to develop contractile ETB receptors and that this plasticity differs in vascular regions.
6.
  • Andiappan, Anand Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Investigating highly replicated asthma genes as candidate genes for allergic rhinitis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2350. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Asthma genetics has been extensively studied and many genes have been associated with the development or severity of this disease. In contrast, the genetic basis of allergic rhinitis (AR) has not been evaluated as extensively. It is well known that asthma is closely related with AR since a large proportion of individuals with asthma also present symptoms of AR, and patients with AR have a 5-6 fold increased risk of developing asthma. Thus, the relevance of asthma candidate genes as predisposing factors for AR is worth investigating. The present study was designed to investigate if SNPs in highly replicated asthma genes are associated with the occurrence of AR. Methods: A total of 192 SNPs from 21 asthma candidate genes reported to be associated with asthma in 6 or more unrelated studies were genotyped in a Swedish population with 246 AR patients and 431 controls. Genotypes for 429 SNPs from the same set of genes were also extracted from a Singapore Chinese genome-wide dataset which consisted of 456 AR cases and 486 controls. All SNPs were subsequently analyzed for association with AR and their influence on allergic sensitization to common allergens. Results: A limited number of potential associations were observed and the overall pattern of P-values corresponds well to the expectations in the absence of an effect. However, in the tests of allele effects in the Chinese population the number of significant P-values exceeds the expectations. The strongest signals were found for SNPs in NPSR1 and CTLA4. In these genes, a total of nine SNPs showed P-values <0.001 with corresponding Q-values <0.05. In the NPSR1 gene some P-values were lower than the Bonferroni correction level. Reanalysis after elimination of all patients with asthmatic symptoms excluded asthma as a confounding factor in our results. Weaker indications were found for IL13 and GSTP1 with respect to sensitization to birch pollen in the Swedish population. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the majority of the highly replicated asthma genes were not associated to AR in our populations which suggest that asthma and AR could have less in common than previously anticipated. However, NPSR1 and CTLA4 can be genetic links between AR and asthma and associations of polymorphisms in NPSR1 with AR have not been reported previously.
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9.
  • Benson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • A network-based analysis of the late-phase reaction of the skin.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. - 0091-6749. ; 118:1, s. 220-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The late-phase reaction (LPR) of the skin is an in vivo model of allergic inflammation. Objective: We sought to identify disease-associated pathways in the LPR using a network-based analysis. Methods: The LPR was examined by means of DNA microarray analysis of skin biopsy specimens from 10 patients with allergic rhinitis and 10 healthy control subjects. The results were further analyzed in 2 different materials consisting of nasal fluids and allergen-challenged CD4(+) T cells from patients with allergic rhinitis. Results: The DNA microarray analysis revealed several genes of known relevance to allergy. The eosinophil marker Charcot-Leyden crystal protein (CLC) that encodes Charcot-Leyden crystal protein differed most in expression. A network-based analysis showed upregulation of IL-4- and CCL4-dependent pathways and downregulation of a TGF-beta-induced pathway. CCL4 is expressed by CD4(+) T cells and chemotactic for eosinophils. We hypothesized that allergen induces release of CCL4 from TH2 cells and that this contributes to influx of eosinophils. Further analysis showed increase of CCL4 protein in nasal fluids from allergic patients during the season. Allergen challenge of PBMCs resulted in proliferation of TH2 cells and increased production of CCL4 in CD4(+) T cells from allergic patients. An analysis of the DNA microarray data revealed a significant correlation between CCL4 and the eosinophil marker CLC. Conclusion: A network-based analysis of the LPR showed increased activity of IL-4- and CCL4-dependent pathways and downregulation of the TGF-beta-induced pathway. Allergen-induced release of CCL4 from T(H)2 cells might contribute to influx of eosinophils during the LPR. Clinical implications: Involvement of multiple interacting pathways indicates that it might be difficult to identify one single mediator as a biomarker or drug target in allergic inflammation.
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10.
  • Bogefors, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • LEAP-2, LL-37 and RNase7 in tonsillar tissue: downregulated expression in seasonal allergic rhinitis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Pathogens and Disease. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2049-632X. ; 72:1, s. 55-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the upper airway, the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) protects against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Previous investigations have revealed downregulated expression of AMPs in different manifestations of allergic disease. In this study, we examined the expression of LL-37, RNase7 and LEAP-2 in tonsillar tissue and studied a possible relation to seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR).
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