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Sökning: WFRF:(Carey Alison H)

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1.
  • Turcot, Valerie, et al. (författare)
  • Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:1, s. 26-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >250 loci for body mass index (BMI), implicating pathways related to neuronal biology. Most GWAS loci represent clusters of common, noncoding variants from which pinpointing causal genes remains challenging. Here we combined data from 718,734 individuals to discover rare and low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%) coding variants associated with BMI. We identified 14 coding variants in 13 genes, of which 8 variants were in genes (ZBTB7B, ACHE, RAPGEF3, RAB21, ZFHX3, ENTPD6, ZFR2 and ZNF169) newly implicated in human obesity, 2 variants were in genes (MC4R and KSR2) previously observed to be mutated in extreme obesity and 2 variants were in GIPR. The effect sizes of rare variants are similar to 10 times larger than those of common variants, with the largest effect observed in carriers of an MC4R mutation introducing a stop codon (p.Tyr35Ter, MAF = 0.01%), who weighed similar to 7 kg more than non-carriers. Pathway analyses based on the variants associated with BMI confirm enrichment of neuronal genes and provide new evidence for adipocyte and energy expenditure biology, widening the potential of genetically supported therapeutic targets in obesity.
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3.
  • Marouli, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 542:7640, s. 186-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
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4.
  • Haiman, Christopher A., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:12, s. 61-1210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 x 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 x 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
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5.
  • Jones, Gregory T., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Identifies Four New Disease-Specific Risk Loci
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 120:2, s. 341-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Together, 6 previously identified risk loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability of AAA. Objective: To identify additional AAA risk loci using data from all available genome-wide association studies. Methods and Results: Through a meta-analysis of 6 genome-wide association study data sets and a validation study totaling 10 204 cases and 107 766 controls, we identified 4 new AAA risk loci: 1q32.3 (SMYD2), 13q12.11 (LINC00540), 20q13.12 (near PCIF1/MMP9/ZNF335), and 21q22.2 (ERG). In various database searches, we observed no new associations between the lead AAA single nucleotide polymorphisms and coronary artery disease, blood pressure, lipids, or diabetes mellitus. Network analyses identified ERG, IL6R, and LDLR as modifiers of MMP9, with a direct interaction between ERG and MMP9. Conclusions: The 4 new risk loci for AAA seem to be specific for AAA compared with other cardiovascular diseases and related traits suggesting that traditional cardiovascular risk factor management may only have limited value in preventing the progression of aneurysmal disease.
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6.
  • Langdahl, Bente L, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale analysis of association between polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor beta 1 gene (TGFB1) and osteoporosis : the GENOMOS study
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 8756-3282. ; 42:5, s. 81-969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: The TGFB1 gene which encodes transforming growth factor beta 1, is a strong candidate for susceptibility to osteoporosis and several studies have reported associations between bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporotic fractures and polymorphisms of TGFB1, although these studies have yielded conflicting results.METHODS: We investigated associations between TGFB1 polymorphisms and BMD and fracture in the GENOMOS study: a prospective multicenter study involving 10 European research studies including a total of 28,924 participants. Genotyping was conducted for known TGFB1 polymorphisms at the following sites: G-1639-A (G-800-A, rs1800468), C-1348-T (C-509-T, rs1800469), T29-C (Leu10Pro, rs1982073), G74-C (Arg25Pro, rs1800471) and C788-T (Thr263Ile, rs1800472). These polymorphisms were genotyped prospectively and methodology was standardized across research centers. Genotypes and haplotypes were related to BMD at the lumbar sine and femoral neck and fractures.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in either women or men at either skeletal site for any of the examined polymorphisms with the possible exception of a weak association with reduced BMD (-12 mg/cm2) in men with the T-1348 allele (p<0.05). None of the haplotypes was associated with BMD and none of the polymorphisms or haplotypes significantly affected overall risk of fractures, however, the odds ratio for incident vertebral fracture in carriers of the rare T788 allele was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.09-2.64), p<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that polymorphic variation in the TGFB1 gene does not play a major role in regulating BMD or susceptibility to fractures. The weak associations we observed between the C-1348-T and lumbar spine BMD in men and between C788-T and risk of incident vertebral fractures are of interest but could be chance findings and will need replication in future studies.
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7.
  • Ioannidis, John P A, et al. (författare)
  • Differential genetic effects of ESR1 gene polymorphisms on osteoporosis outcomes
  • Ingår i: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484. ; 292:17, s. 14-2105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Both bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk have a strong genetic component. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is a candidate gene for osteoporosis, but previous studies of ESR1 polymorphisms in this field were hampered by small sample size, lack of standardization, and inconclusive results.OBJECTIVE: To generate large-scale evidence on whether 3 common ESR1 polymorphisms (intron 1 polymorphisms XbaI [dbSNP: rs9340799] and PvuII [dbSNP: rs2234693] and promoter TA repeats microsatellite) and haplotypes thereof are associated with BMD and fractures.DESIGN AND SETTING: Meta-analysis of individual-level data involving standardized genotyping of 18 917 individuals in 8 European centers.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine; all fractures and vertebral fractures by genotype.RESULTS: No between-center heterogeneity was observed for any outcome in any genetic contrast. None of the 3 polymorphisms or haplotypes had any statistically significant effect on BMD in adjusted or unadjusted analyses, and estimated differences between genetic contrasts were 0.01 g/cm2 or less. Conversely, we found significant reductions in fracture risk. In women homozygous for the absence of an XbaI recognition site, the adjusted odds of all fractures were reduced by 19% (odds ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.71-0.93]; P = .002) and vertebral fractures by 35% (odds ratio, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.49-0.87]; P = .003). Effects on fractures were independent of BMD and unaltered in adjusted analyses. No significant effects on fracture risk were seen for PvuII and TA repeats.CONCLUSIONS: ESR1 is a susceptibility gene for fractures, and XbaI determines fracture risk by mechanisms independent of BMD. Our study demonstrates the value of adequately powered studies with standardized genotyping and clinical outcomes in defining effects of common genetic variants on complex diseases.
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8.
  • Ralston, Stuart H, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale evidence for the effect of the COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism on osteoporosis outcomes : the GENOMOS study
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676. ; 3:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and fracture risk are considered to be under genetic control. Extensive work is being performed to identify the exact genetic variants that determine this risk. Previous work has suggested that a G/T polymorphism affecting an Sp1 binding site in the COLIA1 gene is a genetic marker for low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fracture, but there have been no very-large-scale studies of COLIA1 alleles in relation to these phenotypes.METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we evaluated the role of COLIA1 Sp1 alleles as a predictor of BMD and fracture in a multicenter study involving 20,786 individuals from several European countries. At the femoral neck, the average (95% confidence interval [CI]) BMD values were 25 mg/cm2 (CI, 16 to 34 mg/cm2) lower in TT homozygotes than the other genotype groups (p < 0.001), and a similar difference was observed at the lumbar spine; 21 mg/cm2 (CI, 1 to 42 mg/cm2), (p = 0.039). These associations were unaltered after adjustment for potential confounding factors. There was no association with fracture overall (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01 [CI, 0.95 to 1.08]) in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses, but there was a non-significant trend for association with vertebral fracture and a nominally significant association with incident vertebral fractures in females (OR = 1.33 [CI, 1.00 to 1.77]) that was independent of BMD, and unaltered in adjusted analyses.CONCLUSIONS: Allowing for the inevitable heterogeneity between participating teams, this study-which to our knowledge is the largest ever performed in the field of osteoporosis genetics for a single gene-demonstrates that the COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism is associated with reduced BMD and could predispose to incident vertebral fractures in women, independent of BMD. The associations we observed were modest however, demonstrating the importance of conducting studies that are adequately powered to detect and quantify the effects of common genetic variants on complex diseases.
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9.
  • Uitterlinden, André G, et al. (författare)
  • The association between common vitamin D receptor gene variations and osteoporosis : a participant-level meta-analysis
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - : American College of Physicians. - 0003-4819. ; 145:4, s. 255-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been implicated in the genetic regulation of bone mineral density (BMD). However, the clinical impact of these variants remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between VDR polymorphisms, BMD, and fractures.DESIGN: Prospective multicenter large-scale association study.SETTING: The Genetic Markers for Osteoporosis consortium, involving 9 European research teams.PARTICIPANTS: 26,242 participants (18,405 women).MEASUREMENTS: Cdx2 promoter, FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI polymorphisms; BMD at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine by dual x-ray absorptiometry; and fractures.RESULTS: Comparisons of BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck showed nonsignificant differences less than 0.011 g/cm2 for any genotype with or without adjustments. A total of 6067 participants reported a history of fracture, and 2088 had vertebral fractures. For all VDR alleles, odds ratios for fractures were very close to 1.00 (range, 0.98 to 1.02) and collectively the 95% CIs ranged from 0.94 (lowest) to 1.07 (highest). For vertebral fractures, we observed a 9% (95% CI, 0% to 18%; P = 0.039) risk reduction for the Cdx2 A-allele (13% risk reduction in a dominant model).LIMITATIONS: The authors analyzed only selected VDR polymorphisms. Heterogeneity was detected in some analyses and may reflect some differences in collection of fracture data across cohorts. Not all fractures were related to osteoporosis.CONCLUSIONS: The FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI VDR polymorphisms are not associated with BMD or with fractures, but the Cdx2 polymorphism may be associated with risk for vertebral fractures.
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