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Sökning: WFRF:(Carlson Joseph W.)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 18
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1.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Wang, Li-San, et al. (författare)
  • Rarity of the Alzheimer Disease-Protective APP A673T Variant in the United States.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - 2168-6157. ; 72:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, a rare variant in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) was described in a population from Iceland. This variant, in which alanine is replaced by threonine at position 673 (A673T), appears to protect against late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated the frequency of this variant in AD cases and cognitively normal controls to determine whether this variant will significantly contribute to risk assessment in individuals in the United States.
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  • Schmit, Stephanie L, et al. (författare)
  • Novel Common Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Colorectal Cancer.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk.Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0.Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.
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5.
  • Huyghe, Jeroen R., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:1, s. 76-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 x 10(-8), bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to similar to 100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Kruppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.
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6.
  • Corvigno, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • High density of stroma-localized CD11c-positive macrophages is associated with longer overall survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - : Academic Press. - 0090-8258 .- 1095-6859. ; 159:3, s. 860-868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Pre-clinical studies have identified marker- and tumor compartment-defined functionally distinct macrophage subsets. Our study analyzes marker-defined macrophage subsets in different tumor compartments of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). Methods: A discovery cohort (N = 113) was subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. CD68-positivity was confirmed for CD11c-, CD80- and CD163-positive cells. Subset-marker-positive cells were scored in the total tumor and in four tumor compartments. Correlation analyses investigated co-expression of subsets, relationship to CD8+ cells and survival associations. A validation cohort (N = 121) was used to confirm selected findings from the discovery cohort. Results: CD163-positve cells was the most abundant subtype in all compartments. CD11c and CD163 subsets were strongly correlated with each other in stroma and epithelial areas, whereas CD80 and CD163 were correlated in epithelial areas. CD80 and CD11c in perivascular areas showed low correlations. Strong associations were detected between CD8 and CD80 in the tumor epithelium-dominated areas, and between CD8 and CD11c in stroma areas. High stromal CD11c density was associated with a longer median overall survival in the discovery cohort (HR 0.39; CI 95%, 0.23–0.68; p = 0.001) and in the validation cohort (HR 0.46; CI 95%, 0.22–0.93; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Our study supports the existence of clinically relevant marker- and localization defined macrophage subsets in HGSC, which are independently regulated. Moreover, it suggests stromal CD11c as a novel prognostic marker in HGSC.
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8.
  • Kurtsdotter, Idha, et al. (författare)
  • SOX5/6/21 prevent oncogene-driven transformation of brain stem cells
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 77:18, s. 4985-4997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular mechanisms preventing self-renewing brain stem cells from oncogenic transformation are poorly defined. We show that the expression levels of SOX5, SOX6, and SOX21 (SOX5/6/21) transcription factors increase in stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) upon oncogenic stress, whereas their expression in human glioma decreases during malignant progression. Elevated levels of SOX5/6/21 promoted SVZ cells to exit the cell cycle, whereas genetic ablation of SOX5/6/21 dramatically increased the capacity of these cells to form glioma-like tumors in an oncogene-driven mouse brain tumor model. Loss-of-function experiments revealed that SOX5/6/21 prevent detrimental hyperproliferation of oncogene expressing SVZ cells by facilitating an antiproliferative expression profile. Consistently, restoring high levels of SOX5/6/21 in human primary glioblastoma cells enabled expression of CDK inhibitors and decreased p53 protein turnover, which blocked their tumorigenic capacity through cellular senescence and apoptosis. Altogether, these results provide evidence that SOX5/6/21 play a central role in driving a tumor suppressor response in brain stem cells upon oncogenic insult.
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9.
  • Manning, Alisa K., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - New York : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:6, s. 81-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associations with fasting insulin and glucose on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown loci associated with fasting insulin at P < 5 x 10(-8) in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496 non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting a role for these loci in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.
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10.
  • Roy, Sushmita, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of functional elements and regulatory circuits by Drosophila modENCODE.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - 1095-9203. ; 330:6012, s. 1787-1797
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- and tissue-specific regulators, and enables gene-expression prediction. Our results provide a foundation for directed experimental and computational studies in Drosophila and related species and also a model for systematic data integration toward comprehensive genomic and functional annotation.
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