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Sökning: WFRF:(Carolan P. G.)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Meyer, H., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 49:10, s. 104017-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several improvements to the MAST plant and diagnostics have facilitated new studies advancing the physics basis for ITER and DEMO, as well as for future spherical tokamaks (STs). Using the increased heating capabilities P-NBI <= 3.8 MW H-mode at I-P = 1.2 MA was accessed showing that the energy confinement on MAST scales more weakly with I-P and more strongly with B-t than in the ITER IPB98(y, 2) scaling. Measurements of the fuel retention of shallow pellets extrapolate to an ITER particle throughput of 70% of its original designed total throughput capacity. The anomalous momentum diffusion, chi(phi), is linked to the ion diffusion, chi(i), with a Prandtl number close to P-phi approximate to chi(phi)/chi(i) approximate to 1, although chi(i) approaches neoclassical values. New high spatial resolution measurements of the edge radial electric field, E-r, show that the position of steepest gradients in electron pressure and E-r (i.e. shearing rate) are coincident, but their magnitudes are not linked. The T-e pedestal width on MAST scales with root beta(ped)(pol) rather than rho(pol). The edge localized mode (ELM) frequency for type-IV ELMs, new in MAST, was almost doubled using n = 2 resonant magnetic perturbations from a set of four external coils (n = 1, 2). A new internal 12 coil set (n <= 3) has been commissioned. The filaments in the inter-ELM and L-mode phase are different from ELM filaments, and the characteristics in L-mode agree well with turbulence calculations. A variety of fast particle driven instabilities were studied from 10 kHz saturated fishbone like activity up to 3.8 MHz compressional Alfven eigenmodes. Fast particle instabilities also affect the off-axis NBI current drive, leading to fast ion diffusion of the order of 0.5 m(2) s(-1) and a reduction in the driven current fraction from 40% to 30%. EBW current drive start-up is demonstrated for the first time in a ST generating plasma currents up to 55 kA. Many of these studies contributed to the physics basis of a planned upgrade to MAST.
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2.
  • Sadd, Ben M., et al. (författare)
  • The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 16:76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats.RESULTS: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits.CONCLUSIONS: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.
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3.
  • Lloyd, B., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 47:10, s. S658-S667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Substantial advances have been made on the Mega AmpÚre Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The parameter range of the MAST confinement database has been extended and it now also includes pellet-fuelled discharges. Good pellet retention has been observed in H-mode discharges without triggering an ELM or an H/L transition during peripheral ablation of low speed pellets. Co-ordinated studies on MAST and DIII-D demonstrate a strong link between the aspect ratio and the beta scaling of H-mode energy confinement, consistent with that obtained when MAST data were merged with a subset of the ITPA database. Electron and ion ITBs are readily formed and their evolution has been investigated. Electron and ion thermal diffusivities have been reduced to values close to the ion neoclassical level. Error field correction coils have been used to determine the locked mode threshold scaling which is comparable to that in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The impact of plasma rotation on sawteeth has been investigated and the results have been well-modelled using the MISHKA-F code. Alfvén cascades have been observed in discharges with reversed magnetic shear. Measurements during off-axis NBCD and heating are consistent with classical fast ion modelling and indicate efficient heating and significant driven current. Central electron Bernstein wave heating has been observed via the O-X-B mode conversion process in special magnetically compressed plasmas. Plasmas with low pedestal collisionality have been established and further insight has been gained into the characteristics of filamentary structures at the plasma edge. Complex behaviour of the divertor power loading during plasma disruptions has been revealed by high resolution infra-red measurements.
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4.
  • Richards, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS biology. - 1544-9173 .- 1545-7885. ; 8:2, s. e1000313-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems.
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5.
  • Conway, N. J., et al. (författare)
  • The MAST motional Stark effect diagnostic
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS. - Melville, NY : AMER INST PHYSICS. ; , s. 10D738-
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic is now installed and operating routinely on the MAST spherical tokamak, with 35 radial channels, spatial resolution of similar to 2.5 cm, and time resolution of similar to 1 ms at angular noise levels of similar to 0.5 degrees. Conventional (albeit very narrow) interference filters isolate pi or sigma polarized emission. Avalanche photodiode detectors with digital phase-sensitive detection measure the harmonics of a pair of photoelastic modulators operating at 20 and 23 kHz, and thus the polarization state. The pi component is observed to be significantly stronger than sigma, in reasonably good agreement with atomic physics calculations, and as a result, almost all channels are now operated on pi. Trials with a wide filter that admits the entire Stark pattern (relying on the net polarization of the emission) have demonstrated performance almost as good as the conventional channels. MSE-constrained equilibrium reconstructions can readily be produced between pulses.
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7.
  • Kuldkepp, Matias, et al. (författare)
  • Motional Stark effect diagnostic pilot experiment for MAST
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments. - 0034-6748 .- 1089-7623. ; 77:10, s. 10E905-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exploiting the motional Stark effect (MSE) in the low magnetic fields of spherical tokamaks such as MAST is complicated by the Doppler smearing of the relatively closely spaced Stark components. Extensive modeling of MSE spectra and the subsequent polarized fraction (similar to 20%) of spectrally filtered light and signal to noice ratios have been performed taking account of real experimental conditions including neutral beam parameters, port sizes, optical losses, filter characteristics, etc. A design is selected which uses high throughput interference filters (0.1 nm bandpass ) for separation of the spectral components. An accuracy of similar to 0.5 degrees S compared with typically 15 degrees is estimated for field angle measurements. The design allows for early implementation, starting with a pilot two chord system, and for an economic expansion to a multiplicity of chords. Matching the Doppler shifted D-alpha from the beam neutrals will be accomplished by a combination of filter selection and fine-tuning of the beam voltage. Avoiding filter tuning in the design greatly simplifies the diagnostic. Calibration results of the diagnostic support the calculations.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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