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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Carr Jonathan) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Carr Jonathan)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 23
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1.
  • Dunn, Jonathan H., et al. (författare)
  • Vanishing Magnetic Interactions in Ferromagnetic Thin Films
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. - : American Physical Society (APS). - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 94:21, s. 217202-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have used element-specific hysteresis measurements, based on the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique, to investigate magnetic trilayer structures composed of Fe and Ni layers. Within a critical regime we have discovered a class of structures in which the exchange interaction, the mechanism responsible for the macroscopic magnetism, can become vanishingly small. The experimental observations are supported by first principles theory and are explained as arising from a cancellation of several competing magnetic interactions. Hence, we have discovered a system with a novel exchange interaction between magnetic layers in direct contact that replaces the conventional exchange interaction in ferromagnets.
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2.
  • Marshall, Christian R., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of copy number variants to schizophrenia from a genome-wide study of 41,321 subjects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:1, s. 27-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) have been strongly implicated in the genetic etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, genome-wide investigation of the contribution of CNV to risk has been hampered by limited sample sizes. We sought to address this obstacle by applying a centralized analysis pipeline to a SCZ cohort of 21,094 cases and 20,227 controls. A global enrichment of CNV burden was observed in cases (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, P = 5.7 x 10(-15)), which persisted after excluding loci implicated in previous studies (OR = 1.07, P = 1.7 x 10(-6)). CNV burden was enriched for genes associated with synaptic function (OR = 1.68, P = 2.8 x 10(-11)) and neurobehavioral phenotypes in mouse (OR = 1.18, P = 7.3 x 10(-5)). Genome-wide significant evidence was obtained for eight loci, including 1q21.1, 2p16.3 (NRXN1), 3q29, 7q11.2, 15q13.3, distal 16p11.2, proximal 16p11.2 and 22q11.2. Suggestive support was found for eight additional candidate susceptibility and protective loci, which consisted predominantly of CNVs mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination.
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3.
  • Mullins, N., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 53:76, s. 817-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies. Genome-wide association analyses of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry provide new insights into the etiology of this disorder and identify novel therapeutic leads and potential opportunities for drug repurposing.
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5.
  • Beard, David J., et al. (författare)
  • Considerations and methods for placebo controls in surgical trials (ASPIRE guidelines)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736. ; 395:10226, s. 828-838
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Placebo comparisons are increasingly being considered for randomised trials assessing the efficacy of surgical interventions. The aim of this Review is to provide a summary of knowledge on placebo controls in surgical trials. A placebo control is a complex type of comparison group in the surgical setting and, although powerful, presents many challenges. This Review outlines what a placebo control entails and present understanding of this tool in the context of surgery. We consider when placebo controls in surgery are acceptable (and when they are desirable) in terms of ethical arguments and regulatory requirements, how a placebo control should be designed, how to identify and mitigate risk for participants in these trials, and how such trials should be done and interpreted. Use of placebo controls is justified in randomised controlled trials of surgical interventions provided there is a strong scientific and ethical rationale. Surgical placebos might be most appropriate when there is poor evidence for the efficacy of the procedure and a justified concern that results of a trial would be associated with high risk of bias, particularly because of the placebo effect. Feasibility work is recommended to optimise the design and implementation of randomised controlled trials. This Review forms an outline for best practice and provides guidance, in the form of the Applying Surgical Placebo in Randomised Evaluations (known as ASPIRE) checklist, for those considering the use of a placebo control in a surgical randomised controlled trial.
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6.
  • Carr, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Hospitalizations for new heart failure among subjects with diabetes mellitus in the RENAAL and LIFE studies
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Am J Cardiol. - 0002-9149. ; 96:11, s. 1530-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We sought to study the risk factors for heart failure (HF) and the relation between antihypertensive treatment with losartan and the first hospitalization for HF in patients with diabetes mellitus in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) and Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) studies. We evaluated 1,195 patients with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and diabetes from the LIFE study and 1,513 patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy from the RENAAL study. The comparative treatments were atenolol in the LIFE study and placebo in the RENAAL study. Patients with a history of HF were excluded from this analysis. Losartan significantly reduced the incidence of first hospitalizations for HF versus placebo in the RENAAL study (hazard ratio 0.74, p=0.037) and versus atenolol in the LIFE study (hazard ratio 0.57, p=0.019). Patients enrolled in the RENAAL study were at a higher risk of developing HF (hazard ratio for RENAAL vs LIFE diabetics 3.0, p<0.0001). The significant, independent baseline risk factors for the development of HF in the RENAAL study were urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, age, peripheral vascular disease, the Cornell product, body mass index, and previous angina; in the LIFE study they were the Cornell product, previous myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, baseline atrial fibrillation, alcohol use (inverse relation), and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. The beneficial effect of losartan on the reduction of risk for hospitalization for new HF was demonstrated in patients who were at high renal and/or high cardiovascular risk.
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7.
  • Grasby, KL, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 367:6484, s. 1340-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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8.
  • Heckman, Michael G., et al. (författare)
  • Population-specific Frequencies for LRRK2 Susceptibility Variants in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) Consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 28:12, s. 1740-1744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundVariants within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are recognized as the most frequent genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 variation related to disease susceptibility displays many features that reflect the nature of complex, late-onset sporadic disorders like Parkinson's disease. MethodsThe Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium recently performed the largest genetic association study for variants in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene across 23 different sites in 15 countries. ResultsHerein, we detail the allele frequencies for the novel risk factors (p.A419V and p.M1646T) and the protective haplotype (p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K) nominated in the original publication. Simple population allele frequencies not only can provide insight into the clinical relevance of specific variants but also can help genetically define patient groups. ConclusionsEstablishing individual patient-based genomic susceptibility profiles that incorporate both risk factors and protective factors will determine future diagnostic and treatment strategies. (c) 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
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10.
  • Ngo, Debby, et al. (författare)
  • Proteomic profiling reveals novel biomarkers and pathways in yype 2 diabetes risk
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JCI Insight. - : The American Society for Clinical Investigation. - 2379-3708. ; 6:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent advances in proteomic technologies have made high throughput profiling of low abundance proteins in large epidemiological cohorts increasingly feasible. We investigated whether aptamer-based proteomic profiling could identify biomarkers associated with future development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) beyond known risk factors. We identified dozens of markers with highly significant associations with future T2DM across two large longitudinal cohorts (n=2,839) followed for up to 16 years. We leveraged proteomic, metabolomic, genetic and clinical data from humans to nominate one specific candidate to test for potential causal relationships in model systems. Our studies identified functional effects of aminoacylase 1 (ACY1), a top protein association with future T2DM risk, on amino acid metabolism and insulin homeostasis in vitro and in vivo. Further, a loss-of-function variant associated with circulating levels of the biomarker WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 (WFIKKN2) was in turn associated with fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c and HOMA-IR measurements in humans. In addition to identifying novel disease markers and potential pathways in T2DM, we provide publicly available data to be leveraged for new insights about gene function and disease pathogenesis in the context of human metabolism. .
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 23
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