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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Cassina M) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Cassina M)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 13
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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215 .- 1369-1600.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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2.
  • Watson, H. J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:8, s. 1207-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness(1), affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men(2-4), with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%(5). Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders(6), and outcomes are unacceptably poor(7). Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)(8,9) and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.
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  • Bryois, J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic identification of cell types underlying brain complex traits yields insights into the etiology of Parkinson’s disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:5, s. 482-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson’s disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson’s disease. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
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  • Katsu-Jimenez, Yurika, et al. (författare)
  • Absence of TXNIP in Humans Leads to Lactic Acidosis and Low Serum Methionine Linked to Deficient Respiration on Pyruvate
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 68:4, s. 709-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an -arrestin that can bind to and inhibit the antioxidant protein thioredoxin (TXN). TXNIP expression is induced by glucose and promotes -cell apoptosis in the pancreas, and deletion of its gene in mouse models protects against diabetes. TXNIP is currently studied as a potential new target for antidiabetic drug therapy. In this study, we describe a family with a mutation in the TXNIP gene leading to nondetectable expression of TXNIP protein. Symptoms of affected family members include lactic acidosis and low serum methionine levels. Using patient-derived TXNIP-deficient fibroblasts and myoblasts, we show that oxidative phosphorylation is impaired in these cells when given glucose and pyruvate but normalized with malate. Isolated mitochondria from these cells appear to have normal respiratory function. The cells also display a transcriptional pattern suggestive of a high basal activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor. We conclude that a complete lack of TXNIP in human is nonlethal and leads to specific metabolic distortions that are, at least in part, linked to a deficient respiration on pyruvate. The results give important insights into the impact of TXNIP in humans and thus help to further advance the development of antidiabetic drugs targeting this protein.
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  • Blomqvist, M., et al. (författare)
  • Structural and tribological properties of cluster-assembled CNx films
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Applied Physics A. - : Springer Science. - 0947-8396 .- 1432-0630. ; 87:4, s. 767-772
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the structural and tribological characterization of nanostructured CNx thin films produced by the deposition of a supersonic carbon cluster beam assisted by nitrogen ion bombardment. The influence of the deposition parameters on the chemical composition and structure of the films has been systematically studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Depending on the deposition parameters, the films show a structure ranging from amorphous to disordered graphitic with interlinked planes. Nitrogen content depends on the nitrogen ion kinetic energy. The films have a very low density with a high surface roughness. Friction measurements at the nanoscale show a correlation between nitrogen content and mechanical properties of the system.
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