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Sökning: WFRF:(Castillejo Lopez Casimiro)

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  • Castillejo-Lopez, Casimiro, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and physical interaction of the B-cell systemic lupus erythematosus-associated genes BANK1 and BLK
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 71:1, s. 136-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesAltered signalling in B cells is a predominant feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The genes BANK1 and BLK were recently described as associated with SLE. BANK1 codes for a B-cell-specific cytoplasmic protein involved in B-cell receptor signalling and BLK codes for an Src tyrosine kinase with important roles in B-cell development. To characterise the role of BANK1 and BLK in SLE, a genetic interaction analysis was performed hypothesising that genetic interactions could reveal functional pathways relevant to disease pathogenesis.MethodsThe GPAT16 method was used to analyse the gene-gene interactions of BANK1 and BLK. Confocal microscopy was used to investigate co-localisation, and immunoprecipitation was used to verify the physical interaction of BANK1 and BLK.ResultsEpistatic interactions between BANK1 and BLK polymorphisms associated with SLE were observed in a discovery set of 279 patients and 515 controls from northern Europe. A meta-analysis with 4399 European individuals confirmed the genetic interactions between BANK1 and BLK. As BANK1 was identified as a binding partner of the Src tyrosine kinase LYN, the possibility that BANK1 and BLK could also show a protein-protein interaction was tested. The co-immunoprecipitation and co-localisation of BLK and BANK1 were demonstrated. In a Daudi cell line and primary naive B cells endogenous binding was enhanced upon B-cell receptor stimulation using anti-IgM antibodies.ConclusionsThis study shows a genetic interaction between BANK1 and BLK, and demonstrates that these molecules interact physically. The results have important consequences for the understanding of SLE and other autoimmune diseases and identify a potential new signalling pathway.
  • Delgado-Vega, Angelica M., et al. (författare)
  • Fine mapping and conditional analysis identify a new mutation in the autoimmunity susceptibility gene BLK that leads to reduced half-life of the BLK protein
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-2060 .- 0003-4967. ; 71:7, s. 1219-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To perform fine mapping of the autoimmunity susceptibility gene BLK and identify functional variants involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Genotyping of 1163 European SLE patients and 1482 controls and imputation were performed covering the BLK gene with 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Logistic regression analysis was done using PLINK and conditional analyses using GENABEL's test score. Transfections of BLK constructs on HEK293 cells containing the novel mutation or the wild type form were analysed for their effect on protein half-life using a protein stability assay, cycloheximide and western blot. CHiP-qPCR for detection of nuclear factor. B (NFkB) binding. Results Fine mapping of BLK identified two independent genetic effects with functional consequences: one represented by two tightly linked associated haplotype blocks significantly enriched for NF kappa B-binding sites and numerous putative regulatory variants whose risk alleles correlated with low BLK mRNA levels. Binding of NFkBp50 and p65 to an associated 1.2 Kb haplotype segment was confirmed. A second independent genetic effect was represented by an Ala71Thr, low-frequency missense substitution with an OR = 2.31 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.86). The 71Thr decreased BLK protein half-life. Conclusions These results show that rare and common regulatory variants in BLK are involved in disease susceptibility and both, albeit independently, lead to reduced levels of BLK protein.
  • Diaz-Barreiro, A., et al. (författare)
  • The SLE variant Ala71Thr of BLK severely decreases protein abundance and binding to BANK1 through impairment of the SH3 domain function
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - 1466-4879 .- 1476-5470. ; 17:2, s. 128-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The B-lymphocyte kinase (BLK) gene is associated genetically with several human autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus. We recently described that the genetic risk is given by two haplotypes: one covering several strongly linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter of the gene that correlated with low transcript levels, and a second haplotype that includes a rare nonsynonymous variant (Ala71Thr). Here we show that this variant, located within the BLK SH3 domain, is a major determinant of protein levels. In vitro analyses show that the 71Thr isoform is hyperphosphorylated and promotes kinase activation. As a consequence, BLK is ubiquitinated, its proteasomal degradation enhanced and the average life of the protein is reduced by half. Altogether, these findings suggest that an intrinsic autoregulatory mechanism previously unappreciated in BLK is disrupted by the 71Thr substitution. Because the SH3 domain is also involved in protein interactions, we sought for differences between the two isoforms in trafficking and binding to protein partners. We found that binding of the 71Thr variant to the adaptor protein BANK1 is severely reduced. Our study provides new insights on the intrinsic regulation of BLK activation and highlights the dominant role of its SH3 domain in BANK1 binding.
  • Nowak, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose challenge metabolomics implicates medium-chain acylcarnitines in insulin resistance
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance (IR) predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but its causes are incompletely understood. Metabolic challenges like the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can reveal pathogenic mechanisms. We aimed to discover associations of IR with metabolite trajectories during OGTT. In 470 non-diabetic men (age 70.6 +/- 0.6 years), plasma samples obtained at 0, 30 and 120 minutes during an OGTT were analyzed by untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics. IR was assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method. We applied age-adjusted linear regression to identify metabolites whose concentration change was related to IR. Nine trajectories, including monounsaturated fatty acids, lysophosphatidylethanolamines and a bile acid, were significantly associated with IR, with the strongest associations observed for medium-chain acylcarnitines C10 and C12, and no associations with L-carnitine or C2-, C8-, C14- or C16-carnitine. Concentrations of C10-and C12-carnitine decreased during OGTT with a blunted decline in participants with worse insulin resistance. Associations persisted after adjustment for obesity, fasting insulin and fasting glucose. In mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to different acylcarnitines, we observed blunted insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after treatment with C10-or C12-carnitine. In conclusion, our results identify medium-chain acylcarnitines as possible contributors to IR.
  • Prokunina, L, et al. (författare)
  • A regulatory polymorphism in PDCD1 is associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in humans
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 32:4, s. 666-669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, OMIM 152700) is a complex autoimmune disease that affects 0.05% of the Western population, predominantly women(1-4). A number of susceptibility loci for SLE have been suggested in different populations, but the nature of the susceptibility genes and mutations is yet to be identified(5-9). We previously reported a susceptibility locus (SLEB2) for Nordic multi-case families(9,10). Within this locus, the programmed cell death 1 gene (PDCD1, also called PD-1) was considered the strongest candidate for association with the disease(11-14). Here, we analyzed 2,510 individuals, including members of five independent sets of families as well as unrelated individuals affected with SLE, for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that we identified in PDCD1. We show that one intronic SNP in PDCD1 is associated with development of SLE in Europeans (found in 12% of affected individuals versus 5% of controls; P=0.00001, r.r. (relative risk)=2.6) and Mexicans (found in 7% of affected individuals versus 2% of controls; P=0.0009, r.r.=3.5). The associated allele of this SNP alters a binding site for the runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1, also called AML1) located in an intronic enhancer, suggesting a mechanism through which it can contribute to the development of SLE in humans.
  • Rosén, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • Telomere terminating with centromere-specific repeats is closely associated with a transposon derived gene in Chironomus pallidivittatus
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Chromosoma. - : Springer. - 0009-5915. ; 110:8, s. 532-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We provide evidence that centromere-specific 155 bp DNA repeats terminate one pair of telomeres at the telocentric, left end of the short fourth chromosome in Chironomus pallidivittatus. Earlier evidence indicated that all other telomeres are terminated by 340 bp telomere-specific repeats. DNA that borders the 155 bp repeat contains a transcriptionally active 396 codon open reading frame (ORF) a few kilobases away from the repeat array. The conceptual product of the ORF has regions with similarities to transposase, DNA binding and endonuclease motifs and is likely to have an evolutionary origin in a transposon. It is flanked, within degenerate inverted repeats, by a modified form of an element. Cp80, that has previously been found to insert only into 155 bp repeats and that contains a putative CENP-B box and a region that is prone to recombine. The ORF may therefore have a functional relation to the centromeric region.
  • Sidibeh, C. O., et al. (författare)
  • FKBP5 expression in human adipose tissue: potential role in glucose and lipid metabolism, adipogenesis and type 2 diabetes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Endocrine. - : Springer. - 1355-008X .- 1559-0100. ; 62:1, s. 116-128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Here, we explore the involvement of FKBP51 in glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance (IR) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), including its potential role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moreover, we assess the metabolic effects of reducing the activity of FKBP51 using the specific inhibitor SAFit1. Methods Human SAT was obtained by needle biopsies of the lower abdominal region. FKBP5 gene expression was assessed in fresh SAT explants from a cohort of 20 T2D subjects group-wise matched by gender, age and BMI to 20 nondiabetic subjects. In addition, human SAT was obtained from non-diabetic volunteers (20F/9M). SAT was incubated for 24 h with or without the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and SAFit1. Incubated SAT was used to measure the glucose uptake rate in isolated adipocytes. Results FKBP5 gene expression levels in SAT positively correlated with several indices of IR as well as glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test (r = 0.33, p < 0.05). FKBP5 gene expression levels tended to be higher in T2D subjects compared to non-diabetic subjects (p = 0.088). Moreover, FKBP5 gene expression levels were found to inversely correlate with lipolytic, lipogenic and adipogenic genes. SAFit1 partly prevented the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on glucose uptake. Conclusions FKBP5 gene expression in human SAT tends to be increased in T2D subjects and is related to elevated glucose levels. Moreover, FKBP5 gene expression is inversely associated with the expression of lipolytic, lipogenic and adipogenic genes. SAFit1 can partly prevent glucose uptake impairment by glucocorticoids, suggesting that FKBP51 might be a key factor in glucocorticoid-induced IR.
  • Castillejo-Lopez, Casimiro, et al. (författare)
  • Detailed Functional Characterization of a Waist-Hip Ratio Locus in 7p15.2 Defines an Enhancer Controlling Adipocyte Differentiation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: iScience. - 2589-0042. ; 20, s. 42-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We combined CAGE sequencing in human adipocytes during differentiation with data from genome-wide association studies to identify an enhancer in the SNX10 locus on chromosome 7, presumably involved in body fat distribution. Using reporter assays and CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in human cell lines, we characterized the role of the enhancer in adipogenesis. The enhancer was active during adipogenesis and responded strongly to insulin and isoprenaline. The allele associated with increased waist-hip ratio in human genetic studies was associated with higher enhancer activity. Mutations of the enhancer resulted in less adipocyte differentiation. RNA sequencing of cells with disrupted enhancer showed reduced expression of established adipocyte markers, such as ADIPOQ and LPL, and identified CHI3L1 on chromosome 1 as a potential gene involved in adipocyte differentiation. In conclusion, we identified and characterized an enhancer in the SNX10 locus and outlined its plausible mechanisms of action and downstream targets.
  • Castillejo-Lopez, Casimiro, et al. (författare)
  • Drosophila exoribonuclease nibbler is a tumor suppressor, acts within the RNA(i) machinery and is not enriched in the nuage during early oogenesis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Hereditas. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 0018-0661 .- 1601-5223. ; 155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: micro RNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many biological pathways. A plethora of steps are required to form, from a precursor, the mature miRNA that eventually acts on its target RNA to repress its expression or to inhibit translation. Recently, Drosophila nibbler (nbr) has been shown to be an important player in the maturation process of miRNA and piRNA. Nbr is an exoribonuclease which helps to shape the 3' end of miRNAs by trimming the 3' overhang to a final length. Results: In contrast to previous reports on the localization of Nbr, we report that 1) Nbr is expressed only during a short time of oogenesis and appears ubiquitously localized within oocytes, and that 2) Nbr was is not enriched in the nuage where it was shown to be involved in piwi-mediated mechanisms. To date, there is little information available on the function of nbr for cellular and developmental processes. Due to the fact that nbr mutants are viable with minor deleterious effects, we used the GAL4/UAS over-expression system to define novel functions of nbr. We disclose hitherto unknown functions of nbr 1) as a tumor suppressor and 2) as a suppressor of RNAi. Finally, we confirm that nbr is a suppressor of transposon activity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that nbr exerts much more widespread functions than previously reported from trimming 3' ends of miRNAs only.
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