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1.
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2.
  • Gerlag, Danielle M, et al. (författare)
  • EULAR recommendations for terminology and research in individuals at risk of rheumatoid arthritis : report from the Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 71:5, s. 638-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis was established by the EULAR Standing Committee on Investigative Rheumatology to facilitate research into the preclinical and earliest clinically apparent phases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This report describes the recommendation for terminology to be used to define specific subgroups during different phases of disease, and defines the priorities for research in this area. Terminology was discussed by way of a three-stage structured process: A provisional list of descriptors for each of the possible phases preceding the diagnosis of RA were circulated to members of the study group for review and feedback. Anonymised comments from the members on this list were fed back to participants before a 2-day meeting. 18 participants met to discuss these data, agree terminologies and prioritise important research questions. The study group recommended that, in prospective studies, individuals without RA are described as having: genetic risk factors for RA; environmental risk factors for RA; systemic autoimmunity associated with RA; symptoms without clinical arthritis; unclassified arthritis; which may be used in a combinatorial manner. It was recommended that the prefix 'pre-RA with:' could be used before any/any combination of the five points above but only to describe retrospectively a phase that an individual had progressed through once it was known that they have developed RA. An approach to dating disease onset was recommended. In addition, important areas for research were proposed, including research of other tissues in which an adaptive immune response may be initiated, and the identification of additional risk factors and biomarkers for the development of RA, its progression and the development of extra-articular features. These recommendations provide guidance on approaches to describe phases before the development of RA that will facilitate communication between researchers and comparisons between studies. A number of research questions have been defined, requiring new cohorts to be established and new techniques to be developed to image and collect material from different sites.
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3.
  • Gerstner, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-HLA class II tetramer analyses of citrulline-reactive T cells and early treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background HLA class II tetramers can be used for ex vivo enumeration and phenotypic characterisation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. They are increasingly applied in settings like allergy, vaccination and autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder for which many autoantigens have been described. Results Using multi-parameter flow cytometry, we developed a multi-HLA class II tetramer approach to simultaneously study several antigen specificities in RA patient samples. We focused on previously described citrullinated HLA-DRB1*04:01-restricted T cell epitopes from alpha-enolase, fibrinogen-beta, vimentin as well as cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP). First, we examined inter-assay variability and the sensitivity of the assay in peripheral blood from healthy donors (n = 7). Next, we confirmed the robustness and sensitivity in a cohort of RA patients with repeat blood draws (n = 14). We then applied our method in two different settings. We assessed lymphoid tissue from seropositive arthralgia (n = 5) and early RA patients (n = 5) and could demonstrate autoreactive T cells in individuals at risk of developing RA. Lastly, we studied peripheral blood from early RA patients (n = 10) and found that the group of patients achieving minimum disease activity (DAS28 < 2.6) at 6 months follow-up displayed a decrease in the frequency of citrulline-specific T cells. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the development of a sensitive tetramer panel allowing simultaneous characterisation of antigen-specific T cells in ex vivo patient samples including RA 'at risk' subjects. This multi-tetramer approach can be useful for longitudinal immune-monitoring in any disease with known HLA-restriction element and several candidate antigens.
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4.
  • Gunasekera, Sunithi, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Stabilized Cyclic Peptides as Scavengers of Autoantibodies : Neutralization of Anticitrullinated Protein/Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 13:6, s. 1525-1535
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The occurrence of autoantibodies is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis, specifically those autoantibodies targeting proteins containing the arginine-derived amino acid citrulline. There is strong evidence showing that the occurrence of anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) are involved in disease progression, and ACPA was recently shown to induce pain in animals. Here, we explore a novel concept useful for research, diagnostics, and possibly therapy of autoimmune diseases, namely, to directly target and neutralize autoantibodies using peptide binders. A high-affinity peptide-based scavenger of ACPA was developed by grafting a citrullinated epitope derived from human fibrinogen into a naturally occurring stable peptide scaffold. The best scavenger comprises the truncated epitope alpha-fibrinogen, [Cit573]fib(566-580), grafted into the scaffold sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1, SFTI-1. The final peptide demonstrates low nanomolar apparent affinity and superior stability.
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5.
  • Roos Ljungberg, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Secretory anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in serum associate with lung involvement in early rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 59:4, s. 852-859
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. A 'mucosal connection' in RA presently attracts increasing attention. We recently described the occurrence of secretory antibodies to citrullinated protein (SC-ACPA) in sera from patients with recent-onset RA. The current study was performed to evaluate possible associations between serum levels of secretory ACPA and signs of lung involvement in patients with early, untreated RA. Methods. One hundred and forty-two RA patients were included as part of the 'LUng Investigation in newly diagnosed RA' study. One hundred and six patients were examined with high-resolution CT (HRCT) and 20 patients underwent bronchoscopy, where bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were obtained. SC-ACPA in serum and BALF were detected by an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Antibody levels were related to smoking history, pulmonary function, HRCT, BALF cell counts and findings in bronchial biopsies. Results. SC-ACPA occurred in 16% of the serum samples and in 35% of the BALF samples. SC-ACPA levels in serum correlated with SC-ACPA levels in BALF (sigma = 0.50, P = 0.027) and were higher among patients with HRCT parenchymal lung abnormalities (P = 0.022) or bronchiectasis (P = 0.042). Also, ever smoking was more frequent among serum SC-ACPA-positive patients (91% vs 67%, P = 0.023), and the SC-ACPA levels correlated with the number of pack-years (sigma=0.20, P = 0.020). Conclusion. In early, untreated RA, serum levels of SC-ACPA reflect lung involvement in terms of local ACPA levels, smoking and lung abnormalities on HRCT. These findings strengthen the link between mucosal ACPA responses and the lungs in RA.
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6.
  • af Klint, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of arthroscopy and macroscopic scoring.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy. - 1478-6354 .- 1478-6362. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique for retrieving synovial biopsies in rheumatology during the past 20 years. Vital for its use is continual evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Important for sampling is the fact of intraarticular variation for synovial markers. For microscopic measurements scoring systems have been developed and validated, but for macroscopic evaluations there is a need for further comprehensive description and validation of equivalent scoring systems.METHODS: We studied the complication rate and yield of arthroscopies performed at our clinic between 1998 and 2005. We also created and evaluated a macroscopic score set of instructions for synovitis.RESULTS: Of 408 procedures, we had two major and one minor complication; two haemarthrosis and one wound infection, respectively. Pain was most often not a problem, but 12 procedures had to be prematurely ended due to pain. Yield of biopsies adequate for histology were 83% over all, 94% for knee joints and 34% for smaller joints. Video printer photographs of synovium taken during arthroscopy were jointly and individually reviewed by seven raters in several settings, and intra and inter rater variation was calculated. A macroscopic synovial scoring system for arthroscopy was created (Macro-score), based upon hypertrophy, vascularity and global synovitis. These written instructions were evaluated by five control-raters, and when evaluated individual parameters were without greater intra or inter rater variability, indicating that the score is reliable and easy to use.CONCLUSIONS: In our hands rheumatologic arthroscopy is a safe method with very few complications. For knee joints it is a reliable method to retrieve representative tissue in clinical longitudinal studies. We also created an easy to use macroscopic score, that needs to be validated against other methodologies. We hope it will be of value in further developing international standards in this area.
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7.
  • Ahmed, Naveen, et al. (författare)
  • Deficient cytokine control modulates temporomandibular joint pain in rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0909-8836 .- 1600-0722. ; 123:4, s. 235-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to investigate how endogenous cytokine control of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) influences temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain in relation to the role of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-six consecutive patients with TMJ RA were included. Temporomandibular joint pain intensity was assessed at rest, on maximum mouth opening, on chewing, and on palpation. Mandibular movement capacity and degree of anterior open bite (a clinical sign of structural destruction of TMJ tissues) were also assessed. Systemic inflammatory activity was assessed using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) for rheumatoid arthritis. Samples of TMJ synovial fluid and blood were obtained and analyzed for TNF, its soluble receptor, soluble TNF receptor II (TNFsRII), and ACPA. A high concentration of TNF in relation to the concentration of TNFsRII in TMJ synovial fluid was associated with TMJ pain on posterior palpation on maximum mouth opening. The ACPA concentration correlated significantly to the TNF concentration, but not to the TNFsRII concentration, indicating that increased inflammatory activity is mainly caused by an insufficient increase in anti-inflammatory mediators. This study indicates that TMJ pain on palpation in patients with RA is related to a deficiency in local cytokine control that contributes to increased inflammatory activity, including sensitization to mechanical stimuli over the TMJ.
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8.
  • Ahmed, Naveen, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor necrosis factor mediates temporomandibular joint bone tissue resorption in rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0001-6357 .- 1502-3850. ; 73:3, s. 232-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate if TNF, IL-1 or their endogenous controls, in relation to ACPA, are associated with radiological signs of ongoing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bone tissue resorption and disc displacement in RA patients. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutive outpatients with TMJ of RA were included. Systemic inflammatory activity was assessed by DAS28. The number of painful regions in the body and ESR, CRP, RF and ACPA were analyzed. TMJ synovial fluid and blood samples were obtained and analyzed for TNF, TNFsRII, IL-1ra, IL-1sRII and ACPA. The ratios between the mediators and their endogenous control receptors were used in the statistical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in closed- and open-mouth positions and evaluated regarding disc position and presence of condylar and temporal erosions of the TMJ. RESULTS: A high TNF level in relation to TNFsRII in TMJ synovial fluid correlated to the degree of TMJ condylar erosion. A high IL-1ra level in relation to TNF in TMJ synovial fluid was also correlated to the degree of TMJ condylar erosion. The total degree of TMJ condylar erosion was correlated with the number of painful regions. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that TNF in TMJ synovial fluid mediates TMJ cartilage and bone tissue resorption in RA. The study also suggests that the degree of endogenous cytokine control is of importance for development of bone tissue destruction.
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10.
  • Carlberg, Konstantin, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring inflammatory signatures in arthritic joint biopsies with Spatial Transcriptomics
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lately it has become possible to analyze transcriptomic profiles in tissue sections with retained cellular context. We aimed to explore synovial biopsies from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients, using Spatial Transcriptomics (ST) as a proof of principle approach for unbiased mRNA studies at the site of inflammation in these chronic inflammatory diseases. Synovial tissue biopsies from affected joints were studied with ST. The transcriptome data was subjected to differential gene expression analysis (DEA), pathway analysis, immune cell type identification using Xcell analysis and validation with immunohistochemistry (IHC). The ST technology allows selective analyses on areas of interest, thus we analyzed morphologically distinct areas of mononuclear cell infiltrates. The top differentially expressed genes revealed an adaptive immune response profile and T-B cell interactions in RA, while in SpA, the profiles implicate functions associated with tissue repair. With spatially resolved gene expression data, overlaid on high-resolution histological images, we digitally portrayed pre-selected cell types in silico. The RA displayed an overrepresentation of central memory T cells, while in SpA effector memory T cells were most prominent. Consequently, ST allows for deeper understanding of cellular mechanisms and diversity in tissues from chronic inflammatory diseases.
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