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Sökning: WFRF:(Ceccarelli C.)

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3.
  • Lis, D. C., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel/HIFI discovery of interstellar chloronium (H2Cl+)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521:1, s. L9+-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first detection of chloronium, H_2Cl^+, in the interstellar medium, using the HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The 2_12-1_01 lines of ortho-H\_2^35Cl^+ and ortho-H\_2^37Cl^+ are detected in absorption towards NGC 6334I, and the 1_11-0_00 transition of para-H\_2^35Cl^+ is detected in absorption towards NGC 6334I and Sgr B2(S). The H_2Cl^+ column densities are compared to those of the chemically-related species HCl. The derived HCl/H_2Cl^+ column density ratios, ~1-10, are within the range predicted by models of diffuse and dense photon dominated regions (PDRs). However, the observed H_2Cl^+ column densities, in excess of 10^13 cm^-2, are significantly higher than the model predictions. Our observations demonstrate the outstanding spectroscopic capabilities of HIFI for detecting new interstellar molecules and providing key constraints for astrochemical models.
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4.
  • Codella, C., et al. (författare)
  • The CHESS spectral survey of star forming regions : Peering into the protostellar shock L1157-B1. I. Shock chemical complexity
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L112-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first results of the unbiased survey of the L1157-B1 bow shock, obtained with HIFI in the framework of the key program Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions (CHESS). The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright blue-shifted bow shock B1 is the ideal laboratory for studying the link between the hot (~1000-2000 K) component traced by H2 IR-emission and the cold (~10-20 K) swept-up material. The main aim is to trace the warm gas chemically enriched by the passage of a shock and to infer the excitation conditions in L1157-B1. A total of 27 lines are identified in the 555-636 GHz region, down to an average 3σ level of 30 mK. The emission is dominated by CO(5-4) and H2O(110-101) transitions, as discussed by Lefloch et al. in this volume. Here we report on the identification of lines from NH3, H2CO, CH3OH, CS, HCN, and HCO+. The comparison between the profiles produced by molecules released from dust mantles (NH3, H2CO, CH3OH) and that of H2O is consistent with a scenario in which water is also formed in the gas-phase in high-temperature regions where sputtering or grain-grain collisions are not efficient. The high excitation range of the observed tracers allows us to infer, for the first time for these species, the existence of a warm (≥200 K) gas component coexisting in the B1 bow structure with the cold and hot gas detected from ground. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
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5.
  • Lefloch, B., et al. (författare)
  • The CHESS spectral survey of star forming regions : Peering into the protostellar shock L1157-B1. II. Shock dynamics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L113-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The outflow driven by the low-mass class 0 protostar L1157 is the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright bowshock B1 in the southern outflow lobe is a privileged testbed of magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) shock models, for which dynamical and chemical processes are strongly interdependent. Aims: We present the first results of the unbiased spectral survey of the L1157-B1 bowshock, obtained in the framework of the key program “Chemical HErschel Surveys of star forming regions” (CHESS). The main aim is to trace the warm and chemically enriched gas and to infer the excitation conditions in the shock region. Methods: The CO 5-4 and o-H2O 110-101 lines have been detected at high-spectral resolution in the unbiased spectral survey of the HIFI-band 1b spectral window (555-636 GHz), presented by Codella et al. in this volume. Complementary ground-based observations in the submm window help establish the origin of the emission detected in the main-beam of HIFI and the physical conditions in the shock. Results: Both lines exhibit broad wings, which extend to velocities much higher than reported up to now. We find that the molecular emission arises from two regions with distinct physical conditions : an extended, warm (100 K), dense (3 × 105 cm-3) component at low-velocity, which dominates the water line flux in Band 1; a secondary component in a small region of B1 (a few arcsec) associated with high-velocity, hot (>400 K) gas of moderate density ((1.0-3.0) × 104 cm-3), which appears to dominate the flux of the water line at 179μm observed with PACS. The water abundance is enhanced by two orders of magnitude between the low- and the high-velocity component, from 8 × 10-7 up to 8 × 10-5. The properties of the high-velocity component agree well with the predictions of steady-state C-shock models. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
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6.
  • Ceccarelli, C., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel spectral surveys of star- forming regions Overview of the 555-636 GHz range
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L22-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High resolution line spectra of star-forming regions are mines of information: they provide unique clues to reconstruct the chemical, dynamical, and physical structure of the observed source. We present the first results from the Herschel key project " Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions", CHESS. We report and discuss observations towards five CHESS targets, one outflow shock spot and four protostars with luminosities bewteen 20 and 2 x 105 L similar to : L1157-B1, IRAS 16293-2422, OMC2-FIR4, AFGL 2591, and NGC 6334I. The observations were obtained with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board Herschel, with a spectral resolution of 1 MHz. They cover the frequency range 555-636 GHz, a range largely unexplored before the launch of the Herschel satellite. A comparison of the five spectra highlights spectacular differences in the five sources, for example in the density of methanol lines, or the presence./absence of lines from S-bearing molecules or deuterated species. We discuss how these differences can be attributed to the different star-forming mass or evolutionary status.
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7.
  • Gupta, H., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of OH+ and H2O+ towards Orion KL
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L47-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report observations of the reactive molecular ions OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ towards Orion KL with Herschel/HIFI. All three N = 1-0 fine-structure transitions of OH+ at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz and both fine-structure components of the doublet ortho-H2O+ 111-000 transition at 1115 and 1139 GHz were detected; an upper limit was obtained for H3O+. OH+ and H2O+ are observed purely in absorption, showing a narrow component at the source velocity of 9 km s-1, and a broad blueshifted absorption similar to that reported recently for HF and para-H218O, and attributed to the low velocity outflow of Orion KL. We estimate column densities of OH+ and H2O+ for the 9 km s-1 component of 9 ± 3 × 1012 cm-2 and 7 ± 2 × 1012 cm-2, and those in the outflow of 1.9 ± 0.7 × 1013 cm-2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 1013 cm-2. Upper limits of 2.4 × 1012 cm-2 and 8.7 × 1012 cm-2 were derived for the column densities of ortho and para-H3O+ from transitions near 985 and 1657 GHz. The column densities of the three ions are up to an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from recent observations of W31C and W49N. The comparatively low column densities may be explained by a higher gas density despite the assumption of a very high ionization rate.
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8.
  • Lis, D. C., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel/HIFI measurements of the ortho/para ratio in water towards Sagittarius B2(M) and W31C
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521:1, s. Article Number: L26 -
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-H216O and H218O in absorption towards Sagittarius B2(M) and W31C. The ortho/para ratio in water in the foreground clouds on the line of sight towards these bright continuum sources is generally consistent with the statistical high-temperature ratio of 3, within the observational uncertainties. However, somewhat unexpectedly, we derive a low ortho/para ratio of 2.35 +/- 0.35, corresponding to a spin temperature of similar to 27 K, towards Sagittarius B2(M) at velocities of the expanding molecular ring. Water molecules in this region appear to have formed with, or relaxed to, an ortho/para ratio close to the value corresponding to the local temperature of the gas and dust.
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9.
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10.
  • Rolffs, R., et al. (författare)
  • Reversal of infall in SgrB2(M) revealed by Herschel/HIFI observations of HCN lines at THz frequencies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521:1, s. Article Number: L46 -
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. To investigate the accretion and feedback processes in massive star formation, we analyze the shapes of emission lines from hot molecular cores, whose asymmetries trace infall and expansion motions. Methods. The high-mass star forming region SgrB2(M) was observed with Herschel/HIFI (HEXOS key project) in various lines of HCN and its isotopologues, complemented by APEX data. The observations are compared to spherically symmetric, centrally heated models with density power-law gradient and different velocity fields (infall or infall+expansion), using the radiative transfer code RATRAN. Results. The HCN line profiles are asymmetric, with the emission peak shifting from blue to red with increasing J and decreasing line opacity (HCN to (HCN)-C-13). This is most evident in the HCN 12-11 line at 1062 GHz. These line shapes are reproduced by a model whose velocity field changes from infall in the outer part to expansion in the inner part. Conclusions. The qualitative reproduction of the HCN lines suggests that infall dominates in the colder, outer regions, but expansion dominates in the warmer, inner regions. We are thus witnessing the onset of feedback in massive star formation, starting to reverse the infall and finally disrupting the whole molecular cloud. To obtain our result, the THz lines uniquely covered by HIFI were critically important.
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