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Sökning: WFRF:(Ceder Erik)

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1.
  • Ceder, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • THORACIC SPINE IMAGING: A COMPARISON BETWEEN RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOSYNTHESIS USING VISUAL GRADING CHARACTERISTICS
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Radiation protection dosimetry. - 1742-3406. ; 169:1-4, s. 204-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to evaluate digital tomosynthesis (DTS) in thoracic spine imaging, comparing the reproduction of anatomical structures with that achieved using digital radiography (DR). In a prospective visual grading study, 23 patients referred in 2014 for elective radiographic examination of the thoracic spine were examined using lateral DR and DTS. The DR image and the DTS section images were read in random order by four radiologists, evaluating the ability of the modalities to present a clear reproduction of nine specific relevant structures of the thoracic vertebrae 3, 6 and 9 (T3, T6 and T9). The data were analysed using visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis. The VGC analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in favour of DTS for all evaluated structures, except for the anterior vertebral edges and lower end plate surfaces of T6 and T9 and the cancellous bone of T9. The difference was most striking in T3 and for posterior structures. For no structure in any vertebra was the reproduction rated significantly better for DR. In conclusion, DTS of the thoracic spine appears to be a promising alternative to DR, especially in areas where the problem of overlaying anatomy is accentuated, such as posterior and upper thoracic structures.
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2.
  • Ceder, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Thoracic spine imaging: A comparison between radiography and tomosynthesis using visual grading characteristics
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015 - the Fourth Malmö Conference on Medical Imaging, Gothenburg, Sweden, 28-30 May 2015.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Conventional radiography (CR) is the most-often used modality in imaging of the thoracic spine, as primary examination as well as follow-up of known pathology. However, the ability of radiography to clearly depict thoracic vertebrae is limited, mostly due to overlying structures. Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) has in other parts of the body – most notably in chest imaging – been shown to increase conspicuity of relevant pathology where overlying structures is an issue. DTS has not yet been evaluated as an imaging modality of the thoracic spine. Purpose: To compare the ability of CR and DTS to depict relevant structures of the thoracic vertebrae. Materials and Methods: In this prospective visual grading study, 23 patients referred in 2014 for elective radiographic examination of the thoracic spine were examined using CR and DTS in the sagittal plane. The lateral projections of the CR and DTS images were read in random order by four radiologists evaluating the ability of the modalities to present a clear reproduction of nine specific relevant structures of vertebrae T3, T6 and T9. The data were analyzed using Visual Grading Characteristics (VGC) analysis. Results: In terms of clear reproduction, VGC analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between CR and DTS in favor of the latter, for all evaluated structures apart from the anterior vertebral edges and lower end plates of T6 and T9. The differences were most striking in T3. No structures were evaluated as being more clearly reproduced by CR. Conclusion: The study indicates that most vertebral structures of the thoracic spine are perceived as more clearly reproduced by DTS than by CR, suggesting that detection of pathology would be improved by the use of DTS.
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3.
  • Fitzgerald, Seán, et al. (författare)
  • Large Artery Atherosclerotic Clots are Larger than Clots of other Stroke Etiologies and have Poorer Recanalization rates.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. - 1532-8511. ; 30:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a paucity of knowledge in the literature relating to the extent of clot burden and stroke etiology. In this study, we measured the Extracted Clot Area (ECA) retrieved during endovascular treatment (EVT) and investigated relationships with suspected etiology, administration of intravenous thrombolysis and recanalization.As part of the multi-institutional RESTORE registry, the ECA retrieved during mechanical thrombectomy was quantified using ImageJ. The effect of stroke etiology (Large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), Cardioembolism, Cryptogenic and other) and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) on ECA and recanalization outcome (mTICI) was assessed. Successful recanalization was described as mTICI 2c-3.A total of 550 patients who underwent EVT with any clot retrieved were included in the study. The ECA was significantly larger in the LAA group compared to all other etiologies. The average ECA size of each etiology was; LAA=109 mm2, Cardioembolic=52 mm2, Cryptogenic=47 mm2 and Other=52 mm2 (p=0.014*). LAA patients also had a significantly poorer rate of successful recanalization (mTICI 2c-3) compared to all other etiologies (p=0.003*). The administration of tPA was associated with a smaller ECA in both LAA (p=0.007*) and cardioembolic (p=0.035*) groups.The ECA of LAA clots was double the size of all other etiologies and this is associated with a lower rate of successful recanalization in LAA stroke subtype. rtPA administration prior to thrombectomy was associated with reduced ECA in LAA and CE clots.
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4.
  • Fitzgerald, Seán, et al. (författare)
  • Per-pass analysis of acute ischemic stroke clots: impact of stroke etiology on extracted clot area and histological composition.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurointerventional surgery. - 1759-8486.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Initial studies investigating correlations between stroke etiology and clot composition are conflicting and do not account for clot size as determined by area. Radiological studies have shown that cardioembolic strokes are associated with shorter clot lengths and lower clot burden than non-cardioembolic clots.To report the relationship between stroke etiology, extracted clot area, and histological composition at each procedural pass.As part of the multi-institutional RESTORE Registry, the Martius Scarlett Blue stained histological composition and extracted clot area of 612 per-pass clots retrieved from 441 patients during mechanical thrombectomy procedures were quantified. Correlations with clinical and procedural details were investigated.Clot composition varied significantly with procedural passes; clots retrieved in earlier passes had higher red blood cell content (H4=11.644, p=0.020) and larger extracted clot area (H4=10.730, p=0.030). Later passes were associated with significantly higher fibrin (H4=12.935, p=0.012) and platelets/other (H4=15.977, p=0.003) content and smaller extracted clot area. Large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) clots were significantly larger in the extracted clot area and more red blood cell-rich than other etiologies in passes 1-3. Cardioembolic and cryptogenic clots had similar histological composition and extracted clot area across all procedural passes.LAA clots are larger and associated with a large red blood cell-rich extracted clot area, suggesting soft thrombus material. Cardioembolic clots are smaller in the extracted clot area, consistent in composition and area across passes, and have higher fibrin and platelets/other content than LAA clots, making them stiffer clots. The per-pass histological composition and extracted clot area of cryptogenic clots are similar to those of cardioembolic clots, suggesting similar formation mechanisms.
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5.
  • Hilborn, Erik, 1988- (författare)
  • The role of the androgen receptor and hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase in breast cancer : Impact on tamoxifen treatment
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The healthy breast is a tissue composed of centrally located milk producing glands connected to the nipple by ducts, surrounded by fat tissue and connective tissue. The growth of the breast is primarily mediated by the estrogens, while the androgens mediate tissue homeostasis and protect against growth signals. In breast cancer, the cells of the glands or ducts undergo malignant transformation, and start proliferating in an uncontrollable fashion. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and it is estimated that 10% of all women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their life-time. The primary classification of breast cancer is based mainly on the expression of the estrogen receptor, and 70-80% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, and are classified as luminal. The remaining breast cancers are classified into HER2 positive or triple negative breast cancer. Out of all breast cancers, ~80% are androgen receptor positive. This varies in different subtypes, however, with the highest expression in luminal and lowest expression in triple negative breast cancers. The role of androgen receptor varies depending on subtype. It is considered tissue-protective in luminal breast cancer, while it’s role in HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancers is less defined, but is generally considered to be associated with worse outcome. The primary treatment for breast cancer is surgery, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. Treatment is also subtype specific, and luminal breast cancers in premenopausalwomen are treated using the estrogen receptor blocker (antagonist) tamoxifen, which blocks estrogen signaling. In postmenopausal women, luminal breast  cancers are treated using tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, which prevent the formation of estrogen. The knowledge of which patient will respond and who will develop treatment resistance is of great importance, and the development of markers which can be analyzed prior to treatment in order to reduce the risk of unwanted side effects or complications is the focus of a large body of research. One of the primary goals of this thesis was to establish biomarkers for prognosis and tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer, and paper I, paper II and paper III address this aim.Steroid hormones, including estrogens and androgens, are normally synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal gland, as well as in gender specific tissues such as ovaries in women or the testis or prostate in men. This synthesis takes place as a number of enzymatic conversions, mediated by several different enzymes, and the expression of these enzymes determines the final product of this conversion. In the adrenal gland, testis and prostate, androgens are the end-product, while the ovaries synthesize estrogens. These hormones are transported through the circulation, and upon reaching their target tissues, they mediate their effect. The impact of the steroids on their destination tissue is dependent on their relative concentration and exposure time, which in turn is dependent on the amount in the circulation, but also on the presence of local steroid converting enzymes, which are present in most tissues. The enzymes of the hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase family are present in most tissues, primarily the oxidative member hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 2, which facilitate the conversion of estrogens and androgens to the less active forms, thus protecting the tissues from their effect. In breast cancer, the reductive form, hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 is often up-regulated, and mediates increased activation of estrogens, resulting in increased estrogen signaling, which results in increased proliferation and growth. The second goal of this thesis was to further study the role of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase enzymes in breast cancer, and paper I and paper IV address different  aspects of their role in breast cancer.Following reduction of the expression of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 14, an oxidative member of the family, in breast cancer, the expression of C-X-C ligand 10 was found to be altered. In paper I, in order to determine the role of C-X-C ligand 10 and C-X-C receptor 3 in breast cancer, their expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry in breast cancer patients randomized to tamoxifen or no endocrine treatment irrespectively of estrogen receptor status. The expression of C-XC ligand 10 and C-X-C receptor 3 was found to be associated with increased tamoxifen treatment benefit in the estrogen receptor positive group of patients, indicating that they could be useful markers for determining which patient would respond well to this treatment. Further, C-X-C receptor 3 expression was associated with worse outcome in patients who did not receive tamoxifen, and could be a potential target for inhibitors in order to improve patient outcome. The role of the androgen receptor in breast cancer was evaluated. In paper II the expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry in the same cohort as in paper I. We show that in patients with estrogen receptor negative tumors, the androgen receptor is associated with worse outcome. In patients with high tumoral androgen receptor expression, tamoxifen signaling results in significant improvement in outcome, despite lack of the estrogen receptor. The opposite was observed in patients without tumoral androgen receptor expression, and tamoxifen treatment was associated with adverse outcome. Similar findings were made in the triple negative cases. In the luminal cases, the androgen receptor does not provide further information pertaining to outcome. In paper III we evaluated the role of mutations in the androgen receptor in the cohort of estrogen receptor-negative and androgen receptorpositive cases from paper II. The role of mutations in the androgen receptor appear to have a modest role in regard to patient outcome, but rs17302090 appear associated with tamoxifen treatment benefit. The modulation of the members of the hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase in breast cancer is associated with changes in the local steroid balance, and has been associated with worse outcome and changes in the response to tamoxifen. Further, the inhibition of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 has been proposed as an alternate treatment for breast cancer, but no inhibitors are currently used in the clinic. In paper IV, we evaluated several different mechanisms by which the expression of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 are modulated in breast cancer. We show that the most potent estrogen estradiol, in an estrogen receptor dependent fashion, can result in decreased hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 expression, and a short term reduction in type 2 expression or long term increased type 2 expression. We also show that the most potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, can increase hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 2 expression, but has limited impact on hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1. Further, we show that a number of genes involved in breast cancer, and microRNA are involved in modulating the expression of the hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 in breast cancer. These findings could potentially be used as an alternative to inhibitors, and help modulate the steroidal balance in target tissue.
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6.
  • Larsson, Alice, et al. (författare)
  • Do patients with large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke harboring prestroke disability benefit from thrombectomy?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - 0340-5354. ; 267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Evidence of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) ischemic stroke in patients harboring substantial prestroke disability is lacking due to their exclusion from randomized trials. Here, we used routine care observational data to compare outcomes in patients with and without prestroke disability receiving EVT for LVO ischemic stroke. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing EVT for acute LVO ischemic stroke at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital from January 1st, 2015 to March 31st, 2018 were registered in the Sahlgrenska Stroke Recanalization Registry. Pre- and poststroke functional levels were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Outcomes were recanalization rate (mTICI = 2b/3), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage [sICH], complications during hospital stay, and return to prestroke functional level and mortality at 3 months. Results: Among 591 patients, 90 had prestroke disability (mRS ≥ 3). The latter group were older, more often female, had more comorbidities and higher NIHSS scores before intervention compared to patients without prestroke disability. Recanalization rates (80.0% vs 85.0%, p = 0.211), sICH (2.2% vs 6.3% p = 0.086) and the proportion of patients returning to prestroke functional level (22.7% vs 14.8% p = 0.062) did not significantly differ between those with and without prestroke disability. Patients with prestroke disability had higher complication rates during hospital stay (55.2% vs 40.1% p < 0.01) and mortality at 3 months (48.9% vs 24.3% p < 0.001). Conclusion: One of five with prestroke disability treated with thrombectomy for a LVO ischemic stroke returned to their prestroke functional level. However, compared to patients without prestroke disability, mortality at 3 months was higher. © 2020, The Author(s).
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7.
  • Rossi, Rosanna, et al. (författare)
  • Does prior administration of rtPA influence acute ischemic stroke clot composition? Findings from the analysis of clots retrieved with mechanical thrombectomy from the RESTORE registry.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology. - 1432-1459.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is still much debate whether bridging-therapy [intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) prior to mechanical thrombectomy (MT)] might be beneficial compared to MT alone. We investigated the effect of IVT on size and histological composition of the clots retrieved from patients undergoing bridging-therapy or MT alone.We collected mechanically extracted thrombi from 1000 acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients included in RESTORE registry. Patients were grouped according to the administration (or not) of IVT before thrombectomy. Gross photos of each clot were taken and Extracted Clot Area (ECA) was measured using ImageJ software. Martius Scarlett Blue stain was used to characterize the main histological clot components [red blood cells (RBCs), fibrin (FIB), platelets/other (PTL)] and Orbit Image Analysis was used for quantification. Additionally, we calculated the area of each main component by multiplying the component percent by ECA. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis.451 patients (45%) were treated with bridging-therapy while 549 (55%) underwent MT alone. When considering only percent histological composition, we did not find any difference in RBC% (P = 0.895), FIB% (P = 0.458) and PTL% (P = 0.905). However, bridging-therapy clots were significantly smaller than MT-alone clots [32.7 (14.8-64.9) versus 36.8 (20.1-79.8) mm2, N = 1000, H1 = 7.679, P = 0.006*]. A further analysis expressing components per clot area showed that clots retrieved from bridging-therapy cases contained less RBCs [13.25 (4.29-32.06) versus 14.97 (4.93-39.80) mm2, H1 = 3.637, P = 0.056] and significantly less fibrin [9.10 (4.62-17.98) versus 10.54 (5.57-22.48) mm2, H1 = 7.920, P = 0.005*] and platelets/other [5.04 (2.26-11.32) versus 6.54 (2.94-13.79) mm2, H1 = 9.380, P = 0.002*] than MT-alone clots.Our results suggest that previous IVT administration significantly reduces thrombus size, proportionally releasing all the main histological components.
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8.
  • Rossi, R., et al. (författare)
  • The administration of rtPA before mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke patients is associated with a significant reduction of the retrieved clot area but it does not influence revascularization outcome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - 0929-5305. ; 51:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are evidence-based treatments for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in selected cases. Recanalization may occur following IVT without the necessity of further interventions or requiring a subsequent MT procedure. IVT prior to MT (bridging-therapy) may be associated with benefits or hazards. We studied the retrieved clot area and degree of recanalization in patients undergoing MT or bridging-therapy for whom it was possible to collect thrombus material. We collected mechanically extracted thrombi from 550 AIS patients from four International stroke centers. Patients were grouped according to the administration (or not) of IVT before thrombectomy and the mechanical thrombectomy approach used. We assessed the number of passes for clot removal and the mTICI (modified Treatment In Cerebral Ischemia) score to define revascularization outcome. Gross photos of each clot were taken and the clot area was measured with ImageJ software. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. 255 patients (46.4%) were treated with bridging-therapy while 295 (53.6%) underwent MT alone. By analysing retrieved clot area, we found that clots from patients treated with bridging-therapy were significantly smaller compared to those from patients that underwent MT alone (H-1 = 10.155 p = 0.001*). There was no difference between bridging-therapy and MT alone in terms of number of passes or final mTICI score. Bridging-therapy was associated with significantly smaller retrieved clot area compared to MT alone but it did not influence revascularization outcome.
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