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  • Andrén, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Harvest models of small populations of a large carnivore using Bayesian forecasting
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ecological Applications. - : Ecological Society of America. - 1051-0761 .- 1939-5582. ; 30:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Harvesting large carnivores can be a management tool for meeting politically set goals for their desired abundance. However, harvesting carnivores creates its own set of conflicts in both society and among conservation professionals, where one consequence is a need to demonstrate that management is sustainable, evidence-based, and guided by science. Furthermore, because large carnivores often also have high degrees of legal protection, harvest quotas have to be carefully justified and constantly adjusted to avoid damaging their conservation status. We developed a Bayesian state-space model to support adaptive management of Eurasian lynx harvesting in Scandinavia. The model uses data from the annual monitoring of lynx abundance and results from long-term field research on lynx biology, which has provided detailed estimates of key demographic parameters. We used the model to predict the probability that the forecasted population size will be below or above the management objectives when subjected to different harvest quotas. The model presented here informs decision makers about the policy risks of alternative harvest levels. Earlier versions of the model have been available for wildlife managers in both Sweden and Norway to guide lynx harvest quotas and the model predictions showed good agreement with observations. We combined monitoring data with data on vital rates and were able to estimate unobserved additional mortality rates, which are most probably due to poaching. In both countries, the past quota setting strategy suggests that there has been a de facto threshold strategy with increasing proportion, which means that there is no harvest below a certain population size, but above this threshold there is an increasing proportion of the population harvested as the population size increases. The annual assessment of the monitoring results, the use of forecasting models, and a threshold harvest approach to quota setting will all reduce the risk of lynx population sizes moving outside the desired goals. The approach we illustrate could be adapted to other populations of mammals worldwide.
  • Carter, Neil, et al. (författare)
  • A conceptual framework for understanding illegal killing of large carnivores
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 46:3, s. 251-264
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social–ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks. We apply our framework to two case studies, tigers in Laos and wolverines in northern Sweden, to demonstrate its utility in disentangling some of the complex features of carnivore poaching that may have hindered effective responses to the current poaching crisis. Our framework offers a common platform to help guide future research on wildlife poaching feedbacks, which has hitherto been lacking, in order to effectively inform policy making and enforcement.
  • Chapron, Guillaume (författare)
  • A Final Warning to Planet Earth
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Trends in ecology & evolution. - : Elsevier. - 0169-5347 .- 1872-8383. ; 33, s. 651-652
  • Annan publikation (refereegranskat)
  • Chapron, Guillaume, et al. (författare)
  • A Rights Revolution for Nature : Introduction of Legal Rights for Nature Could Protect Natural Systems from Destruction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 363:6434, s. 1392-1393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Laws aimed at preventing harm to the environment appear to be insufficient to halt or reverse environmental decline. In a Perspective, the authors highlight recent efforts to address this issue by recognizing intrinsic rights of nature. Going beyond the rights for individuals that animal rights advocates call for, the rights of nature proponents focus on natural communities, ecosystems and other natural entities. Several jurisdictions around the world have recognized rights of nature in specific circumstances, providing a potential means to protect natural entities even when their needs conflict with those of humans. Successful expansion and implementation of this concept will, however, depend on legal systems' ability to integrate ecological knowledge, as well as how much weight is given to rights of nature when they are in conflict with those of humans or corporations.
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