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Sökning: WFRF:(Chen Chih Yi)

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  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers. Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures. Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
  • Wang, Bo-Yao, et al. (författare)
  • Nonlinear bandgap opening behavior of BN co-doped graphene
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Carbon. - Elsevier. - 0008-6223. ; 107, s. 857-864
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have demonstrated a nonlinear behavior for the bandgap opening of doped graphene by controlling the concentration of B and N co-dopants. X-ray absorption and emission spectra reveal that the bandgap increases from 0 to 0.6 eV as the concentration of BN dopants is increased from 0 to 6%, while the bandgap closes when the doping concentration becomes 56%. This nonlinear behavior of bandgap opening of the BN-doped graphene depending on the BN concentrations is consistent with the valenceband photoemission spectroscopic measurements. The spatially resolved B, N and C K-edge scanning transmission x-ray microscopy and their x-ray absorption near- edge structure spectra all support the scenario of the development of h-BN-like domains at high concentrations of BN. Ab initio calculation, by taking into account of the strong correlation between the bandgap and the geometry/concentration of the dopant, has been performed with various BN-dopant nano-domains embedded in the graphene monolayer to verify the unique bandgap behavior. Based on the experimental measurements and ab initio calculation, we propose the progressive formation of a phase-separated zigzag-edged BN domain from BN quantum dots with increasing BN-dopant concentration to explain the extraordinary nonlinear behavior of bandgap opening of BN-doped graphene sheets. This study reveals a new way to engineer the bandgap of low-dimensional systems.
  • Hua, Kuo-Tai, et al. (författare)
  • N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein suppresses cancer cell metastasis by binding PIX proteins and inhibiting Cdc42/Rac1 activity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cell. - Cell Press. - 1535-6108. ; 19:2, s. 218-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein, Naa10p, is an N-acetyltransferase known to be involved in cell cycle control. We found that Naa10p was expressed lower in varieties of malignancies with lymph node metastasis compared with non-lymph node metastasis. Higher Naa10p expression correlates the survival of lung cancer patients. Naa10p significantly suppressed migration, tumor growth, and metastasis independent of its enzymatic activity. Instead, Naa10p binds to the GIT-binding domain of PIX, thereby preventing the formation of the GIT-PIX-Paxillin complex, resulting in reduced intrinsic Cdc42/Rac1 activity and decreased cell migration. Forced expression of PIX in Naa10-transfected tumor cells restored the migration and metastasis ability. We suggest that Naa10p functions as a tumor metastasis suppressor by disrupting the migratory complex, PIX-GIT- Paxillin, in cancer cells.
  • Akiyama, Kazunori, et al. (författare)
  • First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 875:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) images of M87, using observations from April 2017 at 1.3 mm wavelength. These images show a prominent ring with a diameter of similar to 40 mu as, consistent with the size and shape of the lensed photon orbit encircling the "shadow" of a supermassive black hole. The ring is persistent across four observing nights and shows enhanced brightness in the south. To assess the reliability of these results, we implemented a two-stage imaging procedure. In the first stage, four teams, each blind to the others' work, produced images of M87 using both an established method (CLEAN) and a newer technique (regularized maximum likelihood). This stage allowed us to avoid shared human bias and to assess common features among independent reconstructions. In the second stage, we reconstructed synthetic data from a large survey of imaging parameters and then compared the results with the corresponding ground truth images. This stage allowed us to select parameters objectively to use when reconstructing images of M87. Across all tests in both stages, the ring diameter and asymmetry remained stable, insensitive to the choice of imaging technique. We describe the EHT imaging procedures, the primary image features in M87, and the dependence of these features on imaging assumptions.
  • Akiyama, Kazunori, et al. (författare)
  • First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 875:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications of the asymmetric ring seen in the 2017 EHT data. To this end, we construct a large library of models based on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations and synthetic images produced by general relativistic ray tracing. We compare the observed visibilities with this library and confirm that the asymmetric ring is consistent with earlier predictions of strong gravitational lensing of synchrotron emission from a hot plasma orbiting near the black hole event horizon. The ring radius and ring asymmetry depend on black hole mass and spin, respectively, and both are therefore expected to be stable when observed in future EHT campaigns. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a spinning Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. If the black hole spin and M87's large scale jet are aligned, then the black hole spin vector is pointed away from Earth. Models in our library of non-spinning black holes are inconsistent with the observations as they do not produce sufficiently powerful jets. At the same time, in those models that produce a sufficiently powerful jet, the latter is powered by extraction of black hole spin energy through mechanisms akin to the Blandford-Znajek process. We briefly consider alternatives to a black hole for the central compact object. Analysis of existing EHT polarization data and data taken simultaneously at other wavelengths will soon enable new tests of the GRMHD models, as will future EHT campaigns at 230 and 345 GHz.
  • Akiyama, Kazunori, et al. (författare)
  • First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 875:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models (asymmetric rings with interior brightness depressions) using two independent sampling algorithms that consider distinct representations of the visibility data. We show that the crescent family of models is statistically preferred over other comparably complex geometric models that we explore. We calibrate the geometric model parameters using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) models of the emission region and estimate physical properties of the source. We further fit images generated from GRMHD models directly to the data. We compare the derived emission region and black hole parameters from these analyses with those recovered from reconstructed images. There is a remarkable consistency among all methods and data sets. We find that >50% of the total flux at arcsecond scales comes from near the horizon, and that the emission is dramatically suppressed interior to this region by a factor >10, providing direct evidence of the predicted shadow of a black hole. Across all methods, we measure a crescent diameter of 42 +/- 3 mu as and constrain its fractional width to be
  • Porth, Oliver, et al. (författare)
  • The Event Horizon General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Code Comparison Project
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. - 1538-4365 .- 0067-0049. ; 243:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent developments in compact object astrophysics, especially the discovery of merging neutron stars by LIGO, the imaging of the black hole in M87 by the Event Horizon Telescope, and high- precision astrometry of the Galactic Center at close to the event horizon scale by the GRAVITY experiment motivate the development of numerical source models that solve the equations of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Here we compare GRMHD solutions for the evolution of a magnetized accretion flow where turbulence is promoted by the magnetorotational instability from a set of nine GRMHD codes: Athena++, BHAC, Cosmos++, ECHO, H-AMR, iharm3D, HARM-Noble, IllinoisGRMHD, and KORAL. Agreement among the codes improves as resolution increases, as measured by a consistently applied, specially developed set of code performance metrics. We conclude that the community of GRMHD codes is mature, capable, and consistent on these test problems.
  • Chen, Min-Wei, et al. (författare)
  • H3K9 histone methyltransferase G9a promotes lung cancer invasion and metastasis by silencing the cell adhesion molecule Ep-CAM
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 70:20, s. 7830-7840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • G9a is a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Emerging evidence suggests that G9a is required to maintain the malignant phenotype, but the role of G9a function in mediating tumor metastasis has not been explored. Here, we show that G9a is expressed in aggressive lung cancer cells, and its elevated expression correlates with poor prognosis. RNAi-mediated knockdown of G9a in highly invasive lung cancer cells inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Conversely, ectopic G9a expression in weakly invasive lung cancer cells increased motility and metastasis. Mechanistic investigations suggested that repression of the cell adhesion molecule Ep-CAM mediated the effects of G9a. First, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Ep-CAM partially relieved metastasis suppression imposed by G9a suppression. Second, an inverse correlation between G9a and Ep-CAM expression existed in primary lung cancer. Third, Ep-CAM repression was associated with promoter methylation and an enrichment for dimethylated histone H3K9. G9a knockdown reduced the levels of H3K9 dimethylation and decreased the recruitment of the transcriptional cofactors HP1, DNMT1, and HDAC1 to the Ep-CAM promoter. Our findings establish a functional contribution of G9a overexpression with concomitant dysregulation of epigenetic pathways in lung cancer progression.
  • Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, The, et al. (författare)
  • First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. the Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 875:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42 ±3 μas, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio ≈10:1. The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. The asymmetry in brightness in the ring can be explained in terms of relativistic beaming of the emission from a plasma rotating close to the speed of light around a black hole. We compare our images to an extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M =(6.5 ±0.7) ×10 9 M o . Our radio-wave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible.
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