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Sökning: WFRF:(Cheng Ching Yu)

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  • Kato, Norihiro, et al. (författare)
  • Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 47:11, s. 93-1282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10(-11) to 5.0 × 10(-21)). The sentinel blood pressure SNPs are enriched for association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites, suggesting that, at some of the loci identified, DNA methylation may lie on the regulatory pathway linking sequence variation to blood pressure. The sentinel SNPs at the 12 new loci point to genes involved in vascular smooth muscle (IGFBP3, KCNK3, PDE3A and PRDM6) and renal (ARHGAP24, OSR1, SLC22A7 and TBX2) function. The new and known genetic variants predict increased left ventricular mass, circulating levels of NT-proBNP, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (P = 0.04 to 8.6 × 10(-6)). Our results provide new evidence for the role of DNA methylation in blood pressure regulation.
  • Desjardins, Kewin, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of a back-illuminated CMOS camera for soft x-ray coherent scattering
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, SRI 2018. - American Institute of Physics Inc.. - 9780735417823 ; 2054
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A commercial scientific camera has been adapted and characterized at the SOLEIL Synchrotron with the aim to improve the acquisition capabilities on the soft X-ray coherent scattering experimental station at SEXTANTS beamline. This device is equipped by the last generation of back side illuminated scientific CMOS (BSI-sCMOS) of 2048 by 2048 pixels of 11 μm2 able to acquire low noise images with a frame rate up to 48 Hz. The camera's performance measurements have been done and shows a good level of readout noise, a large full-well capacity, a medium dark current and a good homogeneity, respectively, 1.6 e- rms (in High Gain mode), 80 000 e- (in Low Gain mode),<5 e-/pixel/s and ∼ 1%. The quantum efficiency (QE) measurement has been performed at the soft x-ray branch of the METROLOGIE beamline and gives a relatively good agreement with the expected theoretical values. Finally, the demonstration of the camera's efficiency and of the gain in useful time measurement related to the high frame rate have been performed with a series of Airy patterns images compared with an image recorded using the standard BSI-CDD already in operation at the SEXTANTS beamline.
  • Griesmayer, E., et al. (författare)
  • Applications of single-crystal CVD diamond XBPM detectors with nanometre x-ray beams
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, SRI 2018. - American Institute of Physics Inc.. - 9780735417823 ; 2054
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements with a Diamond XBPM were carried out at the MAX IV Laboratory, Lund, Sweden, at the NanoMAX beam line. This was the first investigation of a Diamond XBPM detector with nanometre beams. The effect of diffusion, as well as the position resolution at the smallest available beam sizes were studied.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J, et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Marcouille, O., et al. (författare)
  • Production of high energy photons with in vacuum wigglers : From SOLEIL wiggler to MAXIV wiggler
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, SRI 2018. - American Institute of Physics Inc.. - 9780735417823 ; 2054
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Small gap wigglers become more and more attractive to produce high photon fluxes in the hard X-ray photon range. They use magnet blocks of high magnetization which resists much better to heating (baking, synchrotron radiation) than in the past, produce high magnetic field with numerous periods and are very compact. They also are a very good alternative to superconducting technology which requires special infrastructure, heavy maintenance and is not running cost free. SOLEIL, operating presently at 2.75 GeV has designed and built an in-vacuum wiggler of 38 periods of 50 mm producing 2.1 T at a minimum gap of 5.5 mm to delivered photon beam between 20 keV and 50 keV. Already in operation, further improvements are presently in progress to push photons towards higher energy, in particular thanks to the operation at lower gap (4.5 mm). MAX IV and SOLEIL, in the frame of collaboration, ave built an upgraded version of the existing SOLEIL wiggler with the target to extend the spectral range at high energy (above 50 keV) but also at low energy (4 keV) with the same insertion device. The design of the existing magnetic system has been modified to reach 2.4 T at a minimum gap of 4.2 mm and includes taper operation to avoid undulator structure in the radiated spectrum at low energy.
  • Plivelic, Tomás S., et al. (författare)
  • X-ray tracing, design and construction of an optimized optics scheme for CoSAXS, the small angle x-ray scattering beamline at MAX IV laboratory
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, SRI 2018. - American Institute of Physics Inc.. - 9780735417823 ; 2054
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel optical design for a flexible SAXS beamline at a modern synchrotron has been implemented for the CoSAXS beamline at the 3GeV ring at the MAX TV Laboratory. The performance of the beamline has been simulated through combined ray tracing and wave propagation with the code xrt taking into account the low emittance and highly coherent beam of MAX TV and the short inter-optics distances of the beamline. The total photon flux is estimated to be 1012-1013 ph/s with the coherent flux portion up to 10 % at 7.1 keV. The inhomogeneities in the X-ray beam arising from use of real (non-idealised) mirror surfaces are also modelled using the measured slope profiles of the mirrors. Strategies to mitigate these inhomogeneities are discussed. The optical components for CoSAXS have been constructed and beamline commissioning will start in 2019.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
  • Wheeler, Eleanor, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of common genetic determinants of Hemoglobin A1c on type 2 diabetes risk and diagnosis in ancestrally diverse populations A transethnic genome-wide meta-analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1549-1277 .- 1549-1676. ; 14:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 18 HbA1c-associated genetic variants. These variants proved to be classifiable by their likely biological action as erythrocytic (also associated with erythrocyte traits) or glycemic (associated with other glucose-related traits). In this study, we tested the hypotheses that, in a very large scale GWAS, we would identify more genetic variants associated with HbA1c and that HbA1c variants implicated in erythrocytic biology would affect the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. We therefore expanded the number of HbA1c-associated loci and tested the effect of genetic risk-scores comprised of erythrocytic or glycemic variants on incident diabetes prediction and on prevalent diabetes screening performance. Throughout this multiancestry study, we kept a focus on interancestry differences in HbA1c genetics performance that might influence race-ancestry differences in health outcomes.Methods &amp; findings: Using genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 159,940 individuals from 82 cohorts of European, African, East Asian, and South Asian ancestry, we identified 60 common genetic variants associated with HbA1c. We classified variants as implicated in glycemic, erythrocytic, or unclassified biology and tested whether additive genetic scores of erythrocytic variants (GS-E) or glycemic variants (GS-G) were associated with higher T2D incidence in multiethnic longitudinal cohorts (N = 33,241). Nineteen glycemic and 22 erythrocytic variants were associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance. GS-G was associated with higher T2D risk (incidence OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.06, per HbA1c-raising allele, p = 3 x 10-29); whereas GS-E was not (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.60). In Europeans and Asians, erythrocytic variants in aggregate had only modest effects on the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. Yet, in African Americans, the X-linked G6PD G202A variant (T-allele frequency 11%) was associated with an absolute decrease in HbA1c of 0.81%-units (95% CI 0.66-0.96) per allele in hemizygous men, and 0.68%-units (95% CI 0.38-0.97) in homozygous women. The G6PD variant may cause approximately 2% (N = 0.65 million, 95% CI0.55-0.74) of African American adults with T2Dto remain undiagnosed when screened with HbA1c. Limitations include the smaller sample sizes for non-European ancestries and the inability to classify approximately one-third of the variants. Further studies in large multiethnic cohorts with HbA1c, glycemic, and erythrocytic traits are required to better determine the biological action of the unclassified variants.Conclusions: As G6PD deficiency can be clinically silent until illness strikes, we recommend investigation of the possible benefits of screening for the G6PD genotype along with using HbA1c to diagnose T2D in populations of African ancestry or groups where G6PD deficiency is common. Screening with direct glucose measurements, or genetically-informed HbA1c diagnostic thresholds in people with G6PD deficiency, may be required to avoid missed or delayed diagnoses.
  • Winkler, Thomas W., et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to similar to 2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men &lt;= 50y, men &gt; 50y, women &lt;= 50y, women &gt; 50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR&lt; 5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (&lt; 50y) than in older adults (&gt;= 50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may providefurther insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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