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Sökning: WFRF:(Churakov Gennady)

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1.
  • Suh, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple Lineages of Ancient CR1 Retroposons Shaped the Early Genome Evolution of Amniotes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - 1759-6653 .- 1759-6653. ; 7:1, s. 205-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retroposons are long interspersed elements (LINEs) that are ubiquitous within amniote genomes and constitute the most abundant family of transposed elements in birds, crocodilians, turtles, and snakes. They are also present in mammalian genomes, where they reside as numerous relics of ancient retroposition events. Yet, despite their relevance for understanding amniote genome evolution, the diversity and evolution of CR1 elements has never been studied on an amniote-wide level. We reconstruct the temporal and quantitative activity of CR1 subfamilies via presence/absence analyses across crocodilian phylogeny and comparative analyses of 12 crocodilian genomes, revealing relative genomic stasis of retroposition during genome evolution of extant Crocodylia. Our large-scale phylogenetic analysis of amniote CR1 subfamilies suggests the presence of at least seven ancient CR1 lineages in the amniote ancestor; and amniote-wide analyses of CR1 successions and quantities reveal differential retention (presence of ancient relics or recent activity) of these CR1 lineages across amniote genome evolution. Interestingly, birds and lepidosaurs retained the fewest ancient CR1 lineages among amniotes and also exhibit smaller genome sizes. Our study is the first to analyze CR1 evolution in a genome-wide and amniote-wide context and the data strongly suggest that the ancestral amniote genome contained myriad CR1 elements from multiple ancient lineages, and remnants of these are still detectable in the relatively stable genomes of crocodilians and turtles. Early mammalian genome evolution was thus characterized by a drastic shift from CR1 prevalence to dominance and hyperactivity of L2 LINEs in monotremes and L1 LINEs in therians.
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2.
  • Vogel, Jörg, et al. (författare)
  • RNomics in Escherichia coli detects new sRNA species and indicates parallel transcriptional output in bacteria
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nucleic Acids Research. - 0305-1048 .- 1362-4962. ; 31:22, s. 6435-6443
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent bioinformatics‐aided searches have identified many new small RNAs (sRNAs) in the intergenic regions of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Here, a shot‐gun cloning approach (RNomics) was used to generate cDNA libraries of small sized RNAs. Besides many of the known sRNAs, we found new species that were not predicted previously. The present work brings the number of sRNAs in E.coli to 62. Experimental transcription start site mapping showed that some sRNAs were encoded from independent genes, while others were processed from mRNA leaders or trailers, indicative of a parallel transcriptional output generating sRNAs co‐expressed with mRNAs. Two of these RNAs (SroA and SroG) consist of known (THI and RFN) riboswitch elements. We also show that two recently identified sRNAs (RyeB and SraC/RyeA) interact, resulting in RNase III‐dependent cleavage. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of two non‐coding RNAs interacting by a putative antisense mechanism. In addition, intracellular metabolic stabilities of sRNAs were determined, including ones from previous screens. The wide range of half‐lives (<2 to >32 min) indicates that sRNAs cannot generally be assumed to be metabolically stable. The experimental characterization of sRNAs analyzed here suggests that the definition of an sRNA is more complex than previously assumed.
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