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Sökning: WFRF:(Ciric D.)

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1.
  • Romanelli, F., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 55:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the installation of an ITER-like wall, the JET programme has focused on the consolidation of ITER design choices and the preparation for ITER operation, with a specific emphasis given to the bulk tungsten melt experiment, which has been crucial for the final decision on the material choice for the day-one tungsten divertor in ITER. Integrated scenarios have been progressed with the re-establishment of long-pulse, high-confinement H-modes by optimizing the magnetic configuration and the use of ICRH to avoid tungsten impurity accumulation. Stationary discharges with detached divertor conditions and small edge localized modes have been demonstrated by nitrogen seeding. The differences in confinement and pedestal behaviour before and after the ITER-like wall installation have been better characterized towards the development of high fusion yield scenarios in DT. Post-mortem analyses of the plasma-facing components have confirmed the previously reported low fuel retention obtained by gas balance and shown that the pattern of deposition within the divertor has changed significantly with respect to the JET carbon wall campaigns due to the absence of thermally activated chemical erosion of beryllium in contrast to carbon. Transport to remote areas is almost absent and two orders of magnitude less material is found in the divertor.
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2.
  • Joffrin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
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3.
  • Abel, I, et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results with the ITER-like wall
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 53:10, s. 104002-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Following the completion in May 2011 of the shutdown for the installation of the beryllium wall and the tungsten divertor, the first set of JET campaigns have addressed the investigation of the retention properties and the development of operational scenarios with the new plasma-facing materials. The large reduction in the carbon content (more than a factor ten) led to a much lower Z(eff) (1.2-1.4) during L- and H-mode plasmas, and radiation during the burn-through phase of the plasma initiation with the consequence that breakdown failures are almost absent. Gas balance experiments have shown that the fuel retention rate with the new wall is substantially reduced with respect to the C wall. The re-establishment of the baseline H-mode and hybrid scenarios compatible with the new wall has required an optimization of the control of metallic impurity sources and heat loads. Stable type-I ELMy H-mode regimes with H-98,H-y2 close to 1 and beta(N) similar to 1.6 have been achieved using gas injection. ELM frequency is a key factor for the control of the metallic impurity accumulation. Pedestal temperatures tend to be lower with the new wall, leading to reduced confinement, but nitrogen seeding restores high pedestal temperatures and confinement. Compared with the carbon wall, major disruptions with the new wall show a lower radiated power and a slower current quench. The higher heat loads on Be wall plasma-facing components due to lower radiation made the routine use of massive gas injection for disruption mitigation essential.
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4.
  • Romanelli, F, et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 51:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the last IAEA Conference JET has been in operation for one year with a programmatic focus on the qualification of ITER operating scenarios, the consolidation of ITER design choices and preparation for plasma operation with the ITER-like wall presently being installed in JET. Good progress has been achieved, including stationary ELMy H-mode operation at 4.5 MA. The high confinement hybrid scenario has been extended to high triangularity, lower ρ*and to pulse lengths comparable to the resistive time. The steady-state scenario has also been extended to lower ρ*and ν*and optimized to simultaneously achieve, under stationary conditions, ITER-like values of all other relevant normalized parameters. A dedicated helium campaign has allowed key aspects of plasma control and H-mode operation for the ITER non-activated phase to be evaluated. Effective sawtooth control by fast ions has been demonstrated with3He minority ICRH, a scenario with negligible minority current drive. Edge localized mode (ELM) control studies using external n = 1 and n = 2 perturbation fields have found a resonance effect in ELM frequency for specific q95values. Complete ELM suppression has, however, not been observed, even with an edge Chirikov parameter larger than 1. Pellet ELM pacing has been demonstrated and the minimum pellet size needed to trigger an ELM has been estimated. For both natural and mitigated ELMs a broadening of the divertor ELM-wetted area with increasing ELM size has been found. In disruption studies with massive gas injection up to 50% of the thermal energy could be radiated before, and 20% during, the thermal quench. Halo currents could be reduced by 60% and, using argon/deuterium and neon/deuterium gas mixtures, runaway electron generation could be avoided. Most objectives of the ITER-like ICRH antenna have been demonstrated; matching with closely packed straps, ELM resilience, scattering matrix arc detection and operation at high power density (6.2 MW m-2) and antenna strap voltages (42 kV). Coupling measurements are in very good agreement with TOPICA modelling. © 2011 IAEA, Vienna.
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5.
  • Lloyd, B., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 51:9, s. 094013 (paper no.)-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major developments on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have enabled important advances in support of ITER and the physics basis of a spherical tokamak (ST) based component test facility (CTF), as well as providing new insight into underlying tokamak physics. For example, L-H transition studies benefit from high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of pedestal profile evolution (temperature, density and radial electric field) and in support of pedestal stability studies the edge current density profile has been inferred from motional Stark effect measurements. The influence of the q-profile and E x B flow shear on transport has been studied in MAST and equilibrium flow shear has been included in gyro-kinetic codes, improving comparisons with the experimental data. H-modes exhibit a weaker q and stronger collisionality dependence of heat diffusivity than implied by IPB98(gamma, 2) scaling, which may have important implications for the design of an ST-based CTF. ELM mitigation, an important issue for ITER, has been demonstrated by applying resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) using both internal and external coils, but full stabilization of type-I ELMs has not been observed. Modelling shows the importance of including the plasma response to the RMP fields. MAST plasmas with q > 1 and weak central magnetic shear regularly exhibit a long-lived saturated ideal internal mode. Measured plasma braking in the presence of this mode compares well with neo-classical toroidal viscosity theory. In support of basic physics understanding, high resolution Thomson scattering measurements are providing new insight into sawtooth crash dynamics and neo-classical tearing mode critical island widths. Retarding field analyser measurements show elevated ion temperatures in the scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas and, in the presence of type-I ELMs, ions with energy greater than 500 eV are detected 20 cm outside the separatrix. Disruption mitigation by massive gas injection has reduced divertor heat loads by up to 70%.
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6.
  • Meyer, H., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 53:10, s. 104008-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the pedestal highlights the potential roles of micro-tearing modes and kinetic ballooning modes for the pedestal formation. Mitigation of edge localized modes (ELM) using resonant magnetic perturbation has been demonstrated for toroidal mode numbers n = 3, 4, 6 with an ELM frequency increase by up to a factor of 9, compatible with pellet fuelling. The peak heat flux of mitigated and natural ELMs follows the same linear trend with ELM energy loss and the first ELM-resolved T-i measurements in the divertor region are shown. Measurements of flow shear and turbulence dynamics during L-H transitions show filaments erupting from the plasma edge whilst the full flow shear is still present. Off-axis neutral beam injection helps to strongly reduce the redistribution of fast-ions due to fishbone modes when compared to on-axis injection. Low-k ion-scale turbulence has been measured in L-mode and compared to global gyro-kinetic simulations. A statistical analysis of principal turbulence time scales shows them to be of comparable magnitude and reasonably correlated with turbulence decorrelation time. T-e inside the island of a neoclassical tearing mode allow the analysis of the island evolution without assuming specific models for the heat flux. Other results include the discrepancy of the current profile evolution during the current ramp-up with solutions of the poloidal field diffusion equation, studies of the anomalous Doppler resonance compressional Alfven eigenmodes, disruption mitigation studies and modelling of the new divertor design for MAST Upgrade. The novel 3D electron Bernstein synthetic imaging shows promising first data sensitive to the edge current profile and flows.
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7.
  • Meyer, H., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 49:10, s. 104017-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several improvements to the MAST plant and diagnostics have facilitated new studies advancing the physics basis for ITER and DEMO, as well as for future spherical tokamaks (STs). Using the increased heating capabilities P-NBI <= 3.8 MW H-mode at I-P = 1.2 MA was accessed showing that the energy confinement on MAST scales more weakly with I-P and more strongly with B-t than in the ITER IPB98(y, 2) scaling. Measurements of the fuel retention of shallow pellets extrapolate to an ITER particle throughput of 70% of its original designed total throughput capacity. The anomalous momentum diffusion, chi(phi), is linked to the ion diffusion, chi(i), with a Prandtl number close to P-phi approximate to chi(phi)/chi(i) approximate to 1, although chi(i) approaches neoclassical values. New high spatial resolution measurements of the edge radial electric field, E-r, show that the position of steepest gradients in electron pressure and E-r (i.e. shearing rate) are coincident, but their magnitudes are not linked. The T-e pedestal width on MAST scales with root beta(ped)(pol) rather than rho(pol). The edge localized mode (ELM) frequency for type-IV ELMs, new in MAST, was almost doubled using n = 2 resonant magnetic perturbations from a set of four external coils (n = 1, 2). A new internal 12 coil set (n <= 3) has been commissioned. The filaments in the inter-ELM and L-mode phase are different from ELM filaments, and the characteristics in L-mode agree well with turbulence calculations. A variety of fast particle driven instabilities were studied from 10 kHz saturated fishbone like activity up to 3.8 MHz compressional Alfven eigenmodes. Fast particle instabilities also affect the off-axis NBI current drive, leading to fast ion diffusion of the order of 0.5 m(2) s(-1) and a reduction in the driven current fraction from 40% to 30%. EBW current drive start-up is demonstrated for the first time in a ST generating plasma currents up to 55 kA. Many of these studies contributed to the physics basis of a planned upgrade to MAST.
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8.
  • Stork, D., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of transport, fast particle and heating and current drive physics using tritium in JET plasmas
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 45:10, s. S181-S194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results are presented from the JET Trace Tritium Experimental (TTE) campaign using minority tritium (T) plasmas (n(T)/n(D) < 3%). Thermal tritium particle transport coefficients (D-T, nu(T)) are found to exceed neo-classical values in all regimes, except in ELMy H-modes at high densities and in the region of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear plasmas. In ELMy H-mode dimensionless parameter scans, at q(95) 2.8 and triangularity delta = 0.2, the T particle transport scales in a gyro-Bohm manner in the inner plasma (r/a < 0.4), whilst the outer plasma particle transport scaling is more Bohm-like. Dimensionless parameter scans show contrasting behaviour for the trace particle confinement (increases with collisionality, nu* and beta) and bulk energy confinement (decreases with nu* and is independent of beta). In an extended ELMy H-mode data set, with rho*, nu*, and q varied but with neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs) either absent or limited to weak, benign core modes (4/3 or above), the multiparameter fit to the normalized diffusion coefficient in the outer plasma (0.65 < r/a < 0.8) gives D-T/B-phi similar to rho*(2.46) nu*(-0.23) beta(-1.01) q(2.03). In hybrid scenarios (q(min) similar to 1, low positive shear, no sawteeth), the T particle confinement is found to scale with increasing triangularity and plasma current. Comparing regimes (ELMy H-mode, ITB plasma and hybrid scenarios) in the outer plasma region, a correlation of high values of D-T with high values Of nu(T) is seen. The normalized diffusion coefficients for the hybrid and ITB scenarios do not fit the scaling derived for ELMy H-modes. The normalized tritium diffusion scales with normalized poloidal Larmor radius (rho(theta)* = q rho*) in a manner close to gyro-Bohm (similar to rho(sigma)*(3)), with an added inverse P dependence. The effects of ELMs, sawteeth and NTMs on the T particle transport are described. Fast-ion confinement in current-hole (CH) plasmas was tested in TTE by tritium neutral beam injection into JET CH plasmas. gamma-rays from the reactions of fusion alpha and beryllium impurities (Be-9(alpha, n gamma)C-12) characterized the fast fusion-alpha population evolution. The gamma-decay times are consistent with classical alpha plus parent fast triton slowing down times (tau(Ts) + tau(alpha s)) for high plasma currents (I-p > 2 MA) and monotonic q-profiles. In CH discharges the gamma-ray emission decay times are much lower than classical (tau(Ts) + tau(alpha s)), indicating alpha confinement degradation, due to the orbit losses and particle orbit drift predicted by a 3-D Fokker-Planck numerical code and modelled using TRANSP.
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9.
  • Lloyd, B., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 47:10, s. S658-S667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Substantial advances have been made on the Mega AmpÚre Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The parameter range of the MAST confinement database has been extended and it now also includes pellet-fuelled discharges. Good pellet retention has been observed in H-mode discharges without triggering an ELM or an H/L transition during peripheral ablation of low speed pellets. Co-ordinated studies on MAST and DIII-D demonstrate a strong link between the aspect ratio and the beta scaling of H-mode energy confinement, consistent with that obtained when MAST data were merged with a subset of the ITPA database. Electron and ion ITBs are readily formed and their evolution has been investigated. Electron and ion thermal diffusivities have been reduced to values close to the ion neoclassical level. Error field correction coils have been used to determine the locked mode threshold scaling which is comparable to that in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The impact of plasma rotation on sawteeth has been investigated and the results have been well-modelled using the MISHKA-F code. Alfvén cascades have been observed in discharges with reversed magnetic shear. Measurements during off-axis NBCD and heating are consistent with classical fast ion modelling and indicate efficient heating and significant driven current. Central electron Bernstein wave heating has been observed via the O-X-B mode conversion process in special magnetically compressed plasmas. Plasmas with low pedestal collisionality have been established and further insight has been gained into the characteristics of filamentary structures at the plasma edge. Complex behaviour of the divertor power loading during plasma disruptions has been revealed by high resolution infra-red measurements.
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10.
  • Spratt, D A, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of plant and fungal extracts for their potential antigingivitis and anticaries activity.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology. - 1110-7251. ; 2012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The link between diet and health has lead to the promotion of functional foods which can enhance health. In this study, the oral health benefits of a number of food homogenates and high molecular mass and low molecular mass fractions were investigated. A comprehensive range of assays were performed to assess the action of these foods on the development of gingivitis and caries using bacterial species associated with these diseases. Both antigingivitis and anticaries effects were investigated by assays examining the prevention of biofilm formation and coaggregation, disruption of preexisting biofilms, and the foods' antibacterial effects. Assays investigating interactions with gingival epithelial cells and cytokine production were carried out to assess the foods' anti- gingivitis properties. Anti-caries properties such as interactions with hydroxyapatite, disruption of signal transduction, and the inhibition of acid production were investigated. The mushroom and chicory homogenates and low molecular mass fractions show promise as anti-caries and anti-gingivitis agents, and further testing and clinical trials will need to be performed to evaluate their true effectiveness in humans.
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