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Sökning: WFRF:(Cirtwill Alyssa R.)

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  • Albouy, Camille, et al. (författare)
  • The marine fish food web is globally connected
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2397-334X. ; 3:8, s. 1153-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The productivity of marine ecosystems and the services they provide to humans are largely dependent on complex interactions between prey and predators. These are embedded in a diverse network of trophic interactions, resulting in a cascade of events following perturbations such as species extinction. The sheer scale of oceans, however, precludes the characterization of marine feeding networks through de novo sampling. This effort ought instead to rely on a combination of extensive data and inference. Here we investigate how the distribution of trophic interactions at the global scale shapes the marine fish food web structure. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous distribution of species ranges in biogeographic regions should concentrate interactions in the warmest areas and within species groups. We find that the inferred global metaweb of marine fish-that is, all possible potential feeding links between co-occurring species-is highly connected geographically with a low degree of spatial modularity. Metrics of network structure correlate with sea surface temperature and tend to peak towards the tropics. In contrast to open-water communities, coastal food webs have greater interaction redundancy, which may confer robustness to species extinction. Our results suggest that marine ecosystems are connected yet display some resistance to perturbations because of high robustness at most locations.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa R., et al. (författare)
  • Building food networks from molecular data : Bayesian or fixed-number thresholds for including links
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Basic and Applied Ecology. - 1439-1791 .- 1618-0089. ; 50, s. 67-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA metabarcoding of faeces or gut contents has greatly increased our ability to construct networks of predators and prey (food webs) by reducing the need to observe predation events directly. The possibility of both false positives and false negatives in DNA sequences, however, means that constructing food networks using DNA requires researchers to make many choices as to which DNA sequences indicate true prey for a particular predator. To date, DNA-based food networks are usually constructed by including any DNA sequence with more than a threshold number of reads. The logic used to select this threshold is often not explained, leading to somewhat arbitrary-seeming networks. As an alternative strategy, we demonstrate how to construct food networks using a simple Bayesian model to suggest which sequences correspond to true prey. The networks obtained using a well-chosen fixed cutoff and our Bayesian approach are very similar, especially when links are resolved to prey families rather than species. We therefore recommend that researchers reconstruct diet data using a Bayesian approach with well-specified assumptions rather than continuing with arbitrary fixed cutoffs. Explicitly stating assumptions within a Bayesian framework will lead to better-informed comparisons between networks constructed by different groups and facilitate drawing together individual case studies into more coherent ecological theory. Note that our approach can easily be extended to other types of ecological networks constructed by DNA metabarcoding of pollen loads, identification of parasite DNA in faeces, etc.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa R., et al. (författare)
  • Related plants tend to share pollinators and herbivores, but strength of phylogenetic signal varies among plant families
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - : WILEY. - 0028-646X .- 1469-8137.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Related plants are often hypothesized to interact with similar sets of pollinators and herbivores, but this idea has only mixed empirical support. This may be because plant families vary in their tendency to share interaction partners. We quantify overlap of interaction partners for all pairs of plants in 59 pollination and 11 herbivory networks based on the numbers of shared and unshared interaction partners (thereby capturing both proportional and absolute overlap). We test for relationships between phylogenetic distance and partner overlap within each network; whether these relationships varied with the composition of the plant community; and whether well-represented plant families showed different relationships. Across all networks, more closely related plants tended to have greater overlap. The strength of this relationship within a network was unrelated to the composition of the networks plant component, but, when considered separately, different plant families showed different relationships between phylogenetic distance and overlap of interaction partners. The variety of relationships between phylogenetic distance and partner overlap in different plant families probably reflects a comparable variety of ecological and evolutionary processes. Considering factors affecting particular species-rich groups within a community could be the key to understanding the distribution of interactions at the network level.
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