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Sökning: WFRF:(Clemmons D.)

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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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4.
  • Burch, J. L., et al. (författare)
  • Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 352:6290, s. 1189-
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.
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5.
  • Trainer, P J, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of acromegaly with the growth hormone-receptor antagonist pegvisomant.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: The New England journal of medicine. - 0028-4793. ; 342:16, s. 1171-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with acromegaly are currently treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and drugs to reduce hypersecretion of growth hormone, but the treatments may be ineffective and have adverse effects. Pegvisomant is a genetically engineered growth hormone-receptor antagonist that blocks the action of growth hormone.We conducted a 12-week, randomized, double-blind study of three daily doses of pegvisomant (10 mg, 15 mg, and 20 mg) and placebo, given subcutaneously, in 112 patients with acromegaly.The mean (+/-SD) serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) decreased from base line by 4.0+/-16.8 percent in the placebo group, 26.7+/-27.9 percent in the group that received 10 mg of pegvisomant per day, 50.1+/-26.7 percent in the group that received 15 mg of pegvisomant per day, and 62.5+/-21.3 percent in the group that received 20 mg of pegvisomant per day (P<0.001 for the comparison of each pegvisomant group with placebo), and the concentrations became normal in 10 percent, 54 percent, 81 percent, and 89 percent of patients, respectively (P<0.001 for each comparison with placebo). Among patients treated with 15 mg or 20 mg of pegvisomant per day, there were significant decreases in ring size, soft-tissue swelling, the degree of excessive perspiration, and fatigue. The score fortotal symptoms and signs of acromegaly decreased significantly in all groups receiving pegvisomant (P< or =0.05). The incidence of adverse effects was similar in all groups.On the basis of these preliminary results, treatment of patients who have acromegaly with a growth hormone-receptor antagonist results in a reduction in serum IGF-I concentrations and in clinical improvement.
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6.
  • Allen, D. B., et al. (författare)
  • GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 174:2, s. P1-P9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.
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8.
  • Christiansen, J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 174:6, s. C1-C8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). Participants: A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry. Evidence: Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues. Consensus process: Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors. Conclusions: LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations.
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9.
  • Frey, H U, et al. (författare)
  • Freja and ground-based analysis of inverted-V events
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS. - 0148-0227. ; 103:A3, s. 4303-4314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During two campaigns, ground-based auroral observations were performed in coordination with Freja. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the satellite instruments as well as the real-time recording with a stereoscopic camera system from the ground enabled detailed comparison of small- and large-scale optical phenomena with particle and field data measured by the satellite. Three passes of the satellite over inverted-V auroral arcs and over precipitation regions with strong field-aligned electron spectra are investigated. Brightness modulations within auroral arcs coincide with modulations of primary electron fluxes. The dynamics of small-scale structures within arcs as well as the proper motion of arcs are analyzed and compared with electric fields measured by the satellite and with BARS radar measurements. Energy fluxes independently determined from the ground and from the satellite are used to calculate the field-aligned conductance. The results agree with predictions of the kinetic theory of the mirror force, if we allow for variations of the density and thermal energy of the electrons in the source region of the magnetosphere. Detailed comparison of electron spectra and electric and magnetic field perturbations provide evidence of different acceleration mechanisms for the electrons, electrostatic acceleration inside inverted-V's, and wave acceleration in transient regions.
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10.
  • van der Lely, A J, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term treatment of acromegaly with pegvisomant, a growth hormone receptor antagonist.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 0140-6736. ; 358:9295, s. 1754-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pegvisomant is a new growth hormone receptor antagonist that improves symptoms and normalises insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in a high proportion of patients with acromegaly treated for up to 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of pegvisomant in 160 patients with acromegaly treated for an average of 425 days.Treatment efficacy was assessed by measuring changes in tumour volume by magnetic resonance imaging, and serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations in 152 patients who received pegvisomant by daily subcutaneous injection for up to 18 months. The safety analysis included 160 patients some of whom received weekly injections and are excluded from the efficacy analysis.Mean serum IGF-1 concentrations fell by at least 50%: 467 mg/L (SE 24), 526 mg/L (29), and 523 mg/L (40) in patients treated for 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively (p<0.001), whereas growth hormone increased by 12.5 mg/L (2.1), 12.5 mg/L (3.0), and 14.2 mg/L (5.7) (p<0.001). Of the patients treated for 12 months or more, 87 of 90 (97%) achieved a normal serum IGF-1 concentration. In patients withdrawn from pegvisomant (n=45), serum growth hormone concentrations were 8.0 mg/L (2.5) at baseline, rose to 15.2 mg/L (2.4) on drug, and fell back within 30 days of withdrawal to 8.3 mg/L (2.7). Antibodies to growth hormone were detected in 27 (16.9%) of patients, but no tachyphylaxis was seen. Serum insulin and glucose concentrations were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Two patients experienced progressive growth of their pituitary tumours, and two other patients had increased alanine and asparate aminotransferase concentrations requiring withdrawal from treatment. Mean pituitary tumour volume in 131 patients followed for a mean of 11.46 months (0.70) decreased by 0.033 cm(3) (0.057; p=0.353).Pegvisomant is an effective medical treatment for acromegaly.
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