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Sökning: WFRF:(Clendenning Mark)

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1.
  • Jayasekara, Harindra, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and obesity with survival following colorectal cancer diagnosis by stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular subtype
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 142:2, s. 238-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The influence of lifestyle factors on survival following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well established. We examined associations between lifestyle factors measured before diagnosis and CRC survival. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected data on alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and physical activity, and body measurements at baseline (1990-1994) and wave 2 (2003-2007). We included participants diagnosed to 31 August 2015 with incident stages I-III CRC within 10-years post exposure assessment. Information on tumor characteristics and vital status was obtained. Tumor DNA was tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic mutations in oncogenes BRAF (V600E) and KRAS. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between lifestyle factors and overall and CRC-specific mortality using Cox regression. Of 724 eligible CRC cases, 339 died (170 from CRC) during follow-up (average 9.0 years). Exercise (non-occupational/leisure-time) was associated with higher CRC-specific survival for stage II (HR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60) but not stages I/III disease (p for interaction=0.01), and possibly for colon and KRAS wild-type tumors. Waist circumference was inversely associated with CRC-specific survival (HR=1.25 per 10 cm increment, 95% CI: 1.08-1.44), independent of stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular status. Cigarette smoking was associated with lower overall survival, with suggestive evidence of worse survival for BRAF mutated CRC, but not with CRC-specific survival. Alcohol intake was not associated with survival. Survival did not differ by MSI status. We have identified pre-diagnostic predictors of survival following CRC that may have clinical and public health relevance.</p>
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2.
  • Jayasekara, Harindra, et al. (författare)
  • Lifetime alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS plus and BRAF-/KRAS- but not BRAF plus colorectal cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 140:7, s. 1485-1493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a causative agent for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease, and molecular subtypes defined by the presence of somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS are known to exist. We examined associations between lifetime alcohol intake and molecular and anatomic subtypes of colorectal cancer. We calculated usual alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 38,149 participants aged 40-69 years from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Cox regression was performed to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between lifetime alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity in the HRs across subtypes of colorectal cancer was assessed. A positive dose-dependent association between lifetime alcohol intake and overall colorectal cancer risk (mean follow-up=14.6 years; n=596 colon and n=326 rectal cancer) was observed (HR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.12 per 10 g/day increment). The risk was greater for rectal than colon cancer (p(homogeneity)=0.02). Alcohol intake was associated with increased risks of KRAS+ (HR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.15) and BRAF-/KRAS- (HR=1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) but not BRAF+ tumors (HR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01; p(homogeneity)=0.01). Alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- tumors originating via specific molecular pathways including the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway but not with BRAF+ tumors originating via the serrated pathway. Therefore, limiting alcohol intake from a young age might reduce colorectal cancer originating via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway.</p>
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3.
  • O'Mara, Tracy A, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of nine new susceptibility loci for endometrial cancer.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.</p>
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4.
  • Robinson, Kristina Lagerstedt, et al. (författare)
  • Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) diagnostics
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105. ; 99:4, s. 291-299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Preventive programs for individuals who have high lifetime risks of colorectal cancer may reduce disease morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that are associated with hereditary colorectal cancer and to monitor the effects of tailored surveillance. In particular, patients with Lynch syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), have an increased risk to develop colorectal cancer at an early age. The syndrome is explained by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, and there is a need for diagnostic tools to preselect patients for genetic testing to diagnose those with HNPCC. Methods Patients (n = 112) from 285 families who were counseled between 1990 and 2005 at a clinic for patients at high risk for HNPCC were selected for screening to detect mutations in MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 based on family history, microsatellite instability (MSI), and immunohistochemical analysis of MMR protein expression. Tumors were also screened for BRAF V600E mutations; patients with the mutation were considered as non-HNPCC. Results Among the 112 patients who were selected for screening, 69 had germline MMR mutations (58 pathogenic and 11 of unknown biologic relevance). Sixteen of the 69 mutations (23%) were missense mutations. Among patients with MSI-positive tumors, pathogenic MMR mutations were found in 38 of 43 (88%) of patients in families who met Amsterdam criteria and in 13 of 22 (59%) of patients in families who did not. Among patients with MSI-negative tumors, pathogenic MMR mutations were found in 5 of 17 (29%) of families meeting Amsterdam criteria and in 1 of 30 (3%) of non-Amsterdam families with one patient younger than age 50 years. In three patients with MSI-negative tumors who had pathogenic mutations in MLH1 or MSH6, immunohistochemistry showed loss of the mutated protein. Conclusion Our findings suggest that missense MMR gene mutations are common in HNPCC and that germline MMR mutations are also found in patients with IVISI-negative tumors.
5.
  • Thompson, Bryony A, et al. (författare)
  • Application of a 5-tiered scheme for standardized classification of 2,360 unique mismatch repair gene variants in the InSiGHT locus-specific database.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 46, s. 107-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical classification of hereditary sequence variants identified in disease-related genes directly affects clinical management of patients and their relatives. The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) undertook a collaborative effort to develop, test and apply a standardized classification scheme to constitutional variants in the Lynch syndrome-associated genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Unpublished data submission was encouraged to assist in variant classification and was recognized through microattribution. The scheme was refined by multidisciplinary expert committee review of the clinical and functional data available for variants, applied to 2,360 sequence alterations, and disseminated online. Assessment using validated criteria altered classifications for 66% of 12,006 database entries. Clinical recommendations based on transparent evaluation are now possible for 1,370 variants that were not obviously protein truncating from nomenclature. This large-scale endeavor will facilitate the consistent management of families suspected to have Lynch syndrome and demonstrates the value of multidisciplinary collaboration in the curation and classification of variants in public locus-specific databases.
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