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1.
  • Ning, Yilin, et al. (författare)
  • Handling ties in continuous outcomes for confounder adjustment with rank-ordered logit and its application to ordinal outcomes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Statistical Methods in Medical Research. - : SAGE Publications Ltd. - 0962-2802 .- 1477-0334. ; 29:2, s. 437-454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rank-ordered logit (rologit) model was recently introduced as a robust approach for analysing continuous outcomes, with the linear exposure effect estimated by scaling the rank-based log-odds estimate. Here we extend the application of the rologit model to continuous outcomes with ties and ordinal outcomes treated as imperfectly-observed continuous outcomes. By identifying the functional relationship between survival times and continuous outcomes, we explicitly establish the equivalence between the rologit and Cox models to justify the use of the Breslow, Efron and perturbation methods in the analysis of continuous outcomes with ties. Using simulation, we found all three methods perform well with few ties. Although an increasing extent of ties increased the bias of the log-odds and linear effect estimates and resulted in reduced power, which was somewhat worse when the model was mis-specified, the perturbation method maintained a type I error around 5%, while the Efron method became conservative with heavy ties but outperformed Breslow. In general, the perturbation method had the highest power, followed by the Efron and then the Breslow method. We applied our approach to three real-life datasets, demonstrating a seamless analytical workflow that uses stratification for confounder adjustment in studies of continuous and ordinal outcomes.
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2.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Maltreatment, the Oxytocin Receptor Gene, and Conduct Problems Among Male and Female Teenagers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1662-5161 .- 1662-5161. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) influences human behavior. The G allele of OXTR rs53576 has been associated with both prosocial and maladaptive behaviors but few studies have taken account of environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of childhood maltreatment with conduct problems was modified by OXTR rs53576 genotypes. In a general population sample of 1591 teenagers, conduct problems as well as maltreatment were measured by self-report. DNA was extracted from saliva samples. In males, there was a significant positive association between maltreatment and conduct problems independent of the genotype. In females, among G allele carriers, the level of conduct problems was significantly higher among those who had been maltreated as compared to those not maltreated. By contrast, among female AA carriers, conduct problems did not vary between those who were, and who were not, maltreated. The results indicate that OXTR rs53576 plays a role in antisocial behavior in females such that the G allele confers vulnerability for antisocial behavior if they experience maltreatment, whereas the A allele has a protective effect.
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3.
  • Bendre, Megha, et al. (författare)
  • Associations Between MAOA-uVNTR Genotype, Maltreatment, MAOA Methylation, and Alcohol Consumption in Young Adult Males
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alcoholism. - : WILEY. - 0145-6008 .- 1530-0277. ; 42:3, s. 508-519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEpigenetic mechanisms are candidate moderators of the effect of maltreatment on brain and behavior. Interactions between maltreatment and the monoamine oxidase A upstream variable number tandem repeat genotype (MAOA-uVNTR) are associated with alcohol-related problems. However, presently it is not known whether DNA methylation moderates this association. The study focused on 53 young adult males and aimed to determine whether MAOA methylation moderated the association of alcohol-related problems with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment, and whether alcohol consumption moderated the association of MAOA methylation with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment.MethodsMAOA-uVNTR genotypes with 3 and > 3 repeats were categorized as short (S) and long (L), respectively. Data on maltreatment were obtained retrospectively, using self-reported questionnaires. DNA methylation of 16 candidate CpGs within part of the MAOA first exon and intron was assessed and grouped based on principal component analyses. Alcohol-related problems were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol consumption was measured using AUDIT-C. Moderation effects were assessed and probed using the moderated moderation model and Johnson-Neyman's method, respectively.ResultsCarriers of the S allele, who experienced maltreatment and displayed lower Component 1 (mean of CpGs 13-16 in the first intron) MAOA methylation levels, reported higher AUDIT score in contrast to L-allele carriers. Carriers of the S allele, who reported higher AUDIT-C score and experienced maltreatment, displayed lower Component 3 (mean of CpGs 2-6 in the first exon) MAOA methylation levels than L-allele carriers.ConclusionsIntronic methylation moderated the association of alcohol-related problems with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment. Alcohol consumption moderated the association of exonic methylation with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment. These results suggest that epigenetic factors as well as genotype and maltreatment play a role in the development of alcohol misuse among young adult males.
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4.
  • Bendre, Megha, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation. : Maoa,ELS and alcohol
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse.
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5.
  • Checknita, Dave, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of monoamine oxidase A gene first exon methylation with sexual abuse and current depression in women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of neural transmission. - : SPRINGER WIEN. - 0300-9564 .- 1435-1463. ; 125:7, s. 1053-1064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Childhood physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) interact with monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphism to modify risk for mental disorders. In addition, PA and SA may alter gene activity through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, thereby further modifying risk for disorders. We investigated whether methylation in a region spanning the MAOA first exon and part of the first intron was associated with PA and/or SA, MAOA genotype, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, depression disorders, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder. 114 Swedish women completed standardized diagnostic interviews and questionnaires to report PA and SA, and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction. DNA was genotyped for MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms, and methylation of a MAOA region of interest (chrX: 43,515,544-43,515,991) was measured. SA, not PA, was associated with hypermethylation of the MAOA first exon relative to no-abuse, and the association was robust to adjustment for psychoactive medication, alcohol and drug dependence, and current substance use. SA and MAOA-uVNTR genotype, but not their interaction, was associated with MAOA methylation. SA associated with all measured mental disorders. Hypermethylation of MAOA first exon mediated the association of SA with current depression, and both methylation levels and SA independently predicted lifetime depression. Much remains to be learned about the independent effects of SA and MAOA-uVNTR genotypes on methylation of the MAOA first exon.
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6.
  • Checknita, Dave, et al. (författare)
  • Monoamine oxidase A genotype and methylation moderate the association of maltreatment and aggressive behaviour
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Behavioural Brain Research. - : ELSEVIER. - 0166-4328 .- 1872-7549. ; 382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The association between childhood maltreatment and subsequent aggressive behaviour is modified by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) functional polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) genotype, MAOA-Long (MAOA-L) in females, MAOA-Short (MAOA-S) in males. Childhood maltreatment is associated with differential DNA methylation in several genes. Consistent with recent proposals, we hypothesized that the association of the interaction of MAOA genotype and maltreatment with aggressive behaviour is further moderated by methylation of a region of interest (ROI) spanning the first exon and partial first intron of MAOA.Method: The sample included 117 women and 77 men who completed interviews and questionnaires to report maltreatment and aggressive behaviour towards others and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction. The MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism was genotyped, and methylation of the MAOA ROI was assessed.Results: Following adjustment for substance misuse, psychoactive medication use, and in males tobacco use, the highest levels of aggressive behaviour were found among maltreated male carriers of MAOA-S with high levels of exonic methylation.Conclusion: Methylation levels within the MAOA ROI further contributed to the interaction of MAOA risk genotypes and maltreatment on aggressive behaviours among men.
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7.
  • Comasco, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescent alcohol consumption : Biomarkers PEth and FAEE in relation to interview and questionnaire data
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - : Alcohol Research Documentation, Inc.. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 70:5, s. 797-804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE  The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption. METHOD  The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. RESULTS  High alcohol consumption was underreported in the questionnaire compared with the interviews. PEth and FAEE analyses weakly confirmed the self-reports, and the results of the two biochemical tests did not overlap. The PEth blood test was the most specific but the least sensitive, whereas the FAEE hair test revealed low specificity and an overrepresentation of positive results in girls. CONCLUSIONS The expected higher self-report of high alcohol consumption by interview rather than by questionnaire was confirmed partly because of the influence of a bogus pipeline procedure. The absence of overlap between PEth and FAEE results and their poor agreement with self-reports suggested that biomarkers are unsuitable as screening tools for alcohol consumption in adolescents.
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8.
  • Comasco, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Consumption Among Pregnant Women in a Swedish Sample and Its Effects on the Newborn Outcomes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Alcoholism. - 0145-6008 .- 1530-0277. ; 36:10, s. 1779-1786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Little is known about the effects of low levels of maternal alcohol intake on the neuropsychological development of the child. This study is part of an ongoing investigation on maternal drinking and presents data on demographic variables, maternal alcohol use, and birth outcomes from that study. Methods The sample comprised 2,264 women from a Swedish antenatal clinic. Retrospective self-report data were collected on alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and on nicotine use. Specific alcohol biomarkers for excessive drinking, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in serum and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in whole blood, were determined during mid-pregnancy in a subsample of the women. Data on labor and early characteristics of the child were also assessed. Results Before pregnancy, 89% of the women regularly consumed alcohol and 49% reported occasional or frequent binge drinking. Nicotine was used by 15% before and by 5% during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 12% continued using alcohol and 5% also admitted binge drinking. However, all alcohol biomarker values were below the reporting limits (CDT = 1.7% disialotransferrin; total PEth < 0.1 mu mol/L). Self-reported drinking during pregnancy was associated with a higher AUDIT score before pregnancy, nicotine use at the time of the first prenatal visit, older age, and previous legal abortions. Conclusions The AUDIT questionnaire and 2 specific alcohol biomarkers were used in routine maternity care to collect information about drinking during pregnancy and thereby to identify children at risk for alcohol-related complications. While the AUDIT results suggested that a significant number of women continued using alcohol during pregnancy, implying a risk for fetal disorders, the biomarkers showed negative test values thus indicating only modest drinking levels.
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9.
  • Comasco, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and Functional Study of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Schizophrenia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychobiology. - Basel : S. Karger. - 0302-282X .- 1423-0224. ; 74:2, s. 96-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia involves neural catecholaminergic dysregulation. Tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines, and its major transporter, according to studies on fibroblasts, in the brain is the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1). The present study assessed haplotype tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SLC7A5/LAT1 gene in 315 patients with psychosis within the schizophrenia spectrum and 233 healthy controls to investigate genetic vulnerability to the disorder as well as genetic relationships to homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), the major catecholamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Moreover, the involvement of the different isoforms of the system L in tyrosine uptake and LAT1 tyrosine kinetics were studied in fibroblast cell lines of 10 patients with schizophrenia and 10 healthy controls. The results provide suggestive evidence of individual vulnerability to schizophrenia related to the LAT1 SNP rs9936204 genotype. A number of SNPs were nominally associated with CSF HVA and MHPG concentrations but did not survive correction for multiple testing. The LAT1 isoform was confirmed as the major tyrosine transporter in patients with schizophrenia. However, the kinetic parameters (maximal transport capacity, affinity of the binding sites, and diffusion constant of tyrosine transport through the LAT1 isoform) did not differ between patients with schizophrenia and controls. The present genetic findings call for independent replication in larger samples, while the functional study seems to exclude a role of LAT1 in the aberrant transport of tyrosine in fibroblasts of patients with schizophrenia.
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10.
  • Comasco, E., et al. (författare)
  • Neurological and neuropsychological effects of low and moderate prenatal alcohol exposure
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1748-1708 .- 1748-1716. ; 222:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several explanations for the diverse results in research on foetal alcohol spectrum disorders or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder might be at hand: timing, amount and patterns of alcohol exposure, as well as complex epigenetic responses. The genetic background of the offspring and its interaction with other prenatal and post-natal environmental cues are likely also of importance. In the present report, key findings about the possible effects of low and moderate doses of maternal alcohol intake on the neuropsychological development of the offspring are reviewed and plausible mechanisms discussed. Special focus is put on the serotonergic system within developmental and gene-environment frameworks. The review also suggests guidelines for future studies and also summarizes some of to-be-answered questions of relevance to clinical practice. Contradictory findings and paucity of studies on the effects of exposure to low alcohol levels during foetal life for the offspring's neuropsychological development call for large prospective studies, as well as for studies including neuroimaging and multi-omics analyses to dissect the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol exposure-related phenotypes and to identify biomarkers. Finally, it remains to be investigated whether any safe threshold of alcohol drinking during pregnancy can be identified.
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